Ramadân Series: Part 6 – Zakâh Al-Fitr

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

The meaning of Zakâh Al-Fitr

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: It is called sadaqah because it is an indicator of the truth – sidq – of a persons îmân, of the one who pays it. Its attachment to the word al-fitr is the attachment of something to its time, as is said: ‘Salâtul-Fajr or Salâtul-Maghrib’. (Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 172)


The ruling of Zakâh Al-Fitr

عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَرَضَ زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ، عَلَى كُلِّ حُرٍّ أَوْ عَبْدٍ، ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَى، مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ‏

Ibn ‘Umar narrated: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) made it obligatory upon the slave or free Muslim, male or female, to give one Sa’ of dates or barley as Zakâtul-Fitr. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1504)

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: In this hadîth ‘Abdullâh Ibn ‘Umar informed us that the Prophet obligated for his nation Zakâh Al-Fitr… (Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 172/173)

Imâm Muhammad Al-Mundhir said: They (the islâmic jurists) agreed that Zakâh Al-Fitr is obligatory. (Al-Ijmâ’ 106)


On whom Zakâh Al-Fitr is obligatory upon

عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ عَلَى الْعَبْدِ وَالْحُرِّ، وَالذَّكَرِ وَالأُنْثَى، وَالصَّغِيرِ وَالْكَبِيرِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ،

Ibn ‘Umar narrated: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) enjoined the payment of one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley as Zakâtul-Fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old.. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1503)

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: Zakâh Al-Fitr is obligatory upon the adult, the young, the male, the female, the freed and enslaved from the Muslims. Zakâh Al-Fitr is not obligatory for the fetus, except if you choose to do so voluntarily as The Commander of the Believers, ‘Uthmân used to do. Zakâh Al-Fitr is obligatory only on those who have enough to cover their needs for ‘îd and extra. Every Muslim must give it on behalf of himself and those whom he is responsible for, including his wife and relatives if they cannot give it out on their own. (Abridged from Majâlis Sharh Ramadân, 28th sitting)

Shaykh Abdurrahmân As-Sa’dî said: Zakâh Al-Fitr is obligatory upon oneself and for those whom he is obligated to spend upon, if he posses what is more than his provisions for a day and night :a sa’ of dates, grains, dried yogurt, raisins or wheat. (Minhaj Al-Sâlikîn 67)

Ibn Rushd said: The jurists agreed that is it obligatory on each person who is able to pay it on his own behalf, for it is a Zakâh on the person and not on wealth. It is also obligatory on the person to pay it on behalf of his minor children if they do not possess independent wealth, and also for the slaves if they do not possess any wealth. (Bidâyat Al-Mujtahid 1/325)


The wisdom of giving Zakâh Al-Fitr & when it is due

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ طُهْرَةً لِلصَّائِمِ مِنَ اللَّغْوِ وَالرَّفَثِ وَطُعْمَةً لِلْمَسَاكِينِ مَنْ أَدَّاهَا قَبْلَ الصَّلاَةِ فَهِيَ زَكَاةٌ مَقْبُولَةٌ وَمَنْ أَدَّاهَا بَعْدَ الصَّلاَةِ فَهِيَ صَدَقَةٌ مِنَ الصَّدَقَاتِ

‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Abbâs narrated: The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) prescribed Zakâh Al-Fitr as a purification of the fasting person from empty and obscene talk and as food for the poor. If anyone pays it before the prayer (of ‘Îd), it will be accepted as Zakâh. If anyone pays it after the prayer, that will be a sadaqah like other sadaqahs (alms). (Abû Dawûd 1609. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)

عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم…. وَأَمَرَ بِهَا أَنْ تُؤَدَّى قَبْلَ خُرُوجِ النَّاسِ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ‏

Ibn ‘Umar narrated: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the ‘Îd prayer. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1503)

Nâfi’ narrated: Ibn ‘Umar used to give Zakâtul-Fitr for every young and old person. He even used to give on behalf of my children. Ibn’ Umar used to give Zakâtul-Fitr to those who had been officially appointed for its collection. People used to give Zakâtul-Fitr a day or two before the ‘Îd. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1511)

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: The performance (of Zakâh Al-Fitr) is a worship for Allâh, a purification for the one who pays it, a cleansing for the one who fasted from bad speech and evil actions, and food for the poor to enjoy on the day of ‘Îd just as the rich do. (Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 172)

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: The obligatory time of giving out the Zakâh Al-Fitr is after the sunset of the night before ‘Îd. This is because it is the time in which fasting the month of Ramadân ends and breaking the fast begins from that time. This is the reason why it is said “zakâtul-fitr” (the charity of breaking the fast of Ramadân).

The preferable time to give Zakâh Al-Fitr begins the morning of the ‘Îd prayer, before the prayer itself. The proof of this is the above mentioned hadîth [Sahîh Bukhârî 1503].

The permissible time to give Zakâh Al-Fitr begins a day or two before ‘Îd day. It is narrated by Nâfi’ who said about Ibn ‘Umar… [ refer to the above mentioned narration Sahîh Bukhârî 1511].

It is not permissible to delay it until after the ‘Îd prayer. (Majâlis Sharh Ramadân, 28th sitting)


What & how much must be given

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ كُنَّا نُعْطِيهَا فِي زَمَانِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَاعًا مِنْ طَعَامٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ زَبِيبٍ، فَلَمَّا جَاءَ مُعَاوِيَةُ وَجَاءَتِ السَّمْرَاءُ قَالَ أُرَى مُدًّا مِنْ هَذَا يَعْدِلُ مُدَّيْنِ

Abû Sa’îd Al-Khudrî narrated: In the lifetime of the Prophet (ﷺ) we used to give one Sa’ of food or one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley or one Sa’ of Raisins (dried grapes) as Zakâtul-Fitr. And when Mu’âwiyah became the Caliph and the wheat was (available in abundance) he said, “I think (observe) that one Mudd (of wheat) equals two Mudds (of any of the above mentioned things). (Sahîh Bukhârî 1508)

In another narration :

وَكَانَ طَعَامَنَا الشَّعِيرُ وَالزَّبِيبُ وَالأَقِطُ وَالتَّمْرُ

Our food used to be either of barley, raisins (dried grapes), cottage cheese or dates. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1510)

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: As for what should be given for the Zakâh, it is whatever the sons of Âdam consume including dates, wheat, rice, barley, raisins, cheese or other than that.

The amount of food that should be given is one Sa’ of food even if the type and value of food differs. This is due to the general nature of the narrations.

As for the quantity of Zakâtul-Fitr, it is equal to the Prophetic Sa’, which measures to 480 mithqâl of the pure barley and in grams it is equal to 2.4 kilograms. (Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 172, Majâlis Sharh Ramadân 28th sitting).

For more information regarding the Prophetic sa’ & mudd measurements please see:

https://www.bakkah.net/en/zakat-fitr-measurements-saa-three-litres-mudd.htm


Giving money instead of food

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: Giving cash instead of food will not be accepted, because it is contrary to what the Prophet (ﷺ) commanded us with. It is narrated that he (ﷺ) said:

من عمل عملا ليس عليه أمرنا فهو رد

Whoever does a deed which is not in accordance to this affair (religion) of ours, then it is rejected (Sahîh Muslim)


Who to give Zakâh Al-Fitr to

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: Zakâh Al-Fitr should be paid to the poor people of your land, where you are residing, whether you are a residing there permanently or temporarily. If you are in a land where there is no one to receive it because everyone is well off, you should entrust someone who lives in a place where there are poor people, in order that they may give it on your behalf. (Majâlis Sharh Ramadân, 28th sitting)

Ibn Rushd: They (the jurists) agreed that Zakâh Al-Fitr is to be given to the poor, because of the prophets (ﷺ) statement “make them free from want this day”.

Ramadân Series: Part 5 – The Night of Decree (Laylatul-Qadr)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Verily! We have sent it (this Qur’ân) down in the night of Al-Qadr (Decree). And what will make you know what the night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is? The night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allâh in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, (i.e. 83 years and 4 months). Therein descend the angels and the Rûh [Jibrîl (Gabriel)] by Allâhs Permission with all Decrees. Peace! (All that night, there is Peace and Goodness from Allâh to His believing slaves) until the appearance of dawn. (Sûrah Al-Qadr 97)

What is Laylatul-Qadr

The words qadr and qadar mean decree, majesty or high esteem. Thus, Laylatul-Qadr means the Night of Decree or the Night of Majesty. (Lisân al-‘Arab)

It is called Laylatul-Qadr because of its great virtue and status, that is, its excellence in the sight of Allâh. Also, the ordainments about what will happen in the coming year concerning life terms, sustenance and worldly events are all decided during Laylatul-Qadr. (Tafsîr As-Sa’dî 97)


The Virtues of Laylatul-Qadr

1) The Revelation of The Qur’ân

إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَٰهُ فِي لَيۡلَةِ ٱلۡقَدۡرِ ١

Verily! We have sent it (this Qur’ân) down in the night of Al-Qadr (Decree) (Sûrah Al-Qadr 97:1)

Ibn Kathir said: Ibn ‘Abbâs and others have said, “Allâh sent the Qur’ân down all at one time from the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfûdh) to the House of Might (Baytul-‘Izzah), which is in the heaven of this world. Then it came down in parts to the Messenger of Allâh based upon the incidents that occurred over a period of twenty-three years.” (Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr 97)

2) A night better than a thousand months

لَيۡلَةُ ٱلۡقَدۡرِ خَيۡرٞ مِّنۡ أَلۡفِ شَهۡرٖ ٣

The night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allâh in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, (i.e. 83 years and 4 months). (Sûrah Al-Qadr 97:3)

On account of its virtue, this night is better than a thousand months, in that, performing good deeds during it is better than performing acts of worship for a thousand months. (Tafsîr As-Sa’dî 97)

3) A night which Allâh decrees His wise ordainments

تَنَزَّلُ ٱلۡمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ وَٱلرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذۡنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن كُلِّ أَمۡرٖ ٤

Therein descend the angels and the Rûh [Jibrîl (Gabriel)] by Allâhs Permission with all Decrees (Sûrah Al-Qadr 97:4)

The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

ليلةُ القدرِ ليلةُ السابعةِ أو التاسعةِ وعشرين، وإن الملائكةَ تلك الليلةَ أَكْثَرُ في الأرضِ من عَدَدِ الحَصَى

Laylatul-Qadr is the night of the twenty-seventh or twenty-ninth. Indeed, during that night, the angels on earth are more than the numbers of pebbles. (Ibn Khuzaymah 2194. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)

The angels descend in abundance during the Night of Al-Qadr due to its abundant blessings. The angels descend with the descending of blessings and mercy. Qatâdah and others have said, “The matters are determined during it, and the times of death and provisions are measured out during it.” (Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr 97)

4) There is peace until Fajr

سَلَٰمٌ هِيَ حَتَّىٰ مَطۡلَعِ ٱلۡفَجۡرِ ٥

Peace! (All that night, there is Peace and Goodness from Allâh to His believing slaves) until the appearance of dawn. (Sûrah Al-Qadr 97:5)

Mujâhid said, “Peace concerning every matter.” Sa’îd ibn Mansûr said, ‘Isâ ibn Yûnus told us that Al-A’mash narrated to them that Mujâhid said concerning Allâhs statement,﴿سَلَـمٌ هِىَ﴾(There is peace) “It is security in which Shaytân cannot do any evil or any harm.” (Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr 97)

It is a peaceful night, free from every type of evil and wickedness on account of its abundant goodness. (Tafsîr As-Sa’dî 97)

5) Forgiveness for the previous sins

The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

مَنْ صَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ وَمَنْ قَامَ لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ ‏”‏ ‏

He who observes the fast of Ramadân with faith and seeking reward (from Allâh), all his previous sins would be forgiven, and he who observed prayer on Lailatul-Qadr with faith and seeking reward (from Allâh), all his previous sins would be forgiven. (Sahîh Muslim 760)


Which night is Laylatul-Qadr

  • The last ten nights & last seven nights


عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْتَمِسُوهَا فِي الْعَشْرِ الْأَوَاخِرِ يَعْنِي لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ فَإِنْ ضَعُفَ أَحَدُكُمْ أَوْ عَجَزَ فَلَا يُغْلَبَنَّ عَلَى السَّبْعِ الْبَوَاقِي

Ibn ‘Umar reported: The Messenger of Allâh صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Look for the Night of Decree in the last ten nights of Ramadân. If one of you is weak or unable, then let him not miss (at least) the last seven nights” (Sahîh Muslim 1165)

  • The odd/even nights of the last ten nights

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ تَحَرَّوْا لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ فِي الْوِتْرِ مِنَ الْعَشْرِ الأَوَاخِرِ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ ‏”‏‏.

‘Âishah narrated: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Search for the Night of Qadr in the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadân.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 2017)

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ الْتَمِسُوهَا فِي الْعَشْرِ الأَوَاخِرِ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ فِي تَاسِعَةٍ تَبْقَى، فِي سَابِعَةٍ تَبْقَى، فِي خَامِسَةٍ تَبْقَى ‏”‏‏.‏

Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbâs: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Seek for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of Ramadân; on the night when nine or seven or five nights remain out of the last ten nights of Ramadân. (Sahîh Bukhârî 2021)

Shaikhul Islām states (after being asked about Lailatul Qadr):

” Alhamdullillah lailatul Qadr is in the last ten nights of the month of ramadhān, this is how it has authentically occurred from the messenger – (ﷺ ) that he said:

It is in the last ten days of Ramadhān

and it is in the odd nights.

The odd nights though, are viewed in respect to that which has passed (from the month), thus one seeks out the 21st and the 23rd and the 25th and the 27th and the 29th.

It is also sought from a point of view of what remains (from the month). Just as the Prophet – Sallallahu alaihi Was salam said (In the Hadīth of Abu Bakarah – Radhiyallahu anhu):

“(seek it) on the ninth of the nights remaining of ramadhān, the seventh of the nights remaining of Ramadhān, the fifth of the nights remaining of ramadhān, the third of the nights remaining of ramadhān

(Collected by Imaam Abu Dawood At Tayālisi (922 – Turki print) and tirmidhi and declared ‘Sahīh bu Shaikh Nāsir in Sahīh Sunan At Tirmidhi (636))

Based upon this, if it is a 30 day month, then that will occur on even nights, and the 22nd night will be the 9th of the nights remaining from ramadhān, the 24th will be the 7th of the nights remaining from ramadhān (and so on). This is how Abu Sa’īd Al Khudhri explained it in an authentic hadīth. And thus the Prophet  (ﷺ ) established the month in this way.

If (however) the month is of 29 days, (as lunar months often are) then the remaining days (as it relates to them falling on odd or even nights) will be the same as the past days (meaning whichever way one looks at it on a 29 day month, the odd nights in respect to looking at the month from the beginning will start from the 21st and considering the second hadīth, counting down, the ninth night will also fall on the 21st and eight will be on the 22nd and so on)

Therefore if this is the case it is befitting that the believer seeks it out in all of the (nights of the) last ten..”

(Majmoo’ul Fatāwā 25/284-285)

*https://ah-sp.com/2012/08/09/lailatul-qadr-odd-and-even-nights/

  • The night of the twenty-first

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ‏.‏ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُجَاوِرُ فِي رَمَضَانَ الْعَشْرَ الَّتِي فِي وَسَطِ الشَّهْرِ، فَإِذَا كَانَ حِينَ يُمْسِي مِنْ عِشْرِينَ لَيْلَةً تَمْضِي، وَيَسْتَقْبِلُ إِحْدَى وَعِشْرِينَ، رَجَعَ إِلَى مَسْكَنِهِ وَرَجَعَ مَنْ كَانَ يُجَاوِرُ مَعَهُ‏.‏ وَأَنَّهُ أَقَامَ فِي شَهْرٍ جَاوَرَ فِيهِ اللَّيْلَةَ الَّتِي كَانَ يَرْجِعُ فِيهَا، فَخَطَبَ النَّاسَ، فَأَمَرَهُمْ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ، ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏ “‏ كُنْتُ أُجَاوِرُ هَذِهِ الْعَشْرَ، ثُمَّ قَدْ بَدَا لِي أَنْ أُجَاوِرَ هَذِهِ الْعَشْرَ الأَوَاخِرَ، فَمَنْ كَانَ اعْتَكَفَ مَعِي فَلْيَثْبُتْ فِي مُعْتَكَفِهِ، وَقَدْ أُرِيتُ هَذِهِ اللَّيْلَةَ ثُمَّ أُنْسِيتُهَا فَابْتَغُوهَا فِي الْعَشْرِ الأَوَاخِرِ وَابْتَغُوهَا فِي كُلِّ وِتْرٍ، وَقَدْ رَأَيْتُنِي أَسْجُدُ فِي مَاءٍ وَطِينٍ فَاسْتَهَلَّتِ السَّمَاءُ فِي تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةِ، فَأَمْطَرَتْ، فَوَكَفَ الْمَسْجِدُ فِي مُصَلَّى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَيْلَةَ إِحْدَى وَعِشْرِينَ، فَبَصُرَتْ عَيْنِي رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَنَظَرْتُ إِلَيْهِ انْصَرَفَ مِنَ الصُّبْحِ، وَوَجْهُهُ مُمْتَلِئٌ طِينًا وَمَاءً‏.‏

Narrated by Abû Sa’îd Al-Khudrî: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) used to practice I’tikâf (in the mosque) in the middle third of Ramadân and after passing the twenty nights he used to go back to his house on the 21st, and the people who were in I’tikâf with him also used to go back to their houses. Once in Ramadân, in which he practiced I’tikâf, he established the night prayers at the night in which he used to return home, and then he addressed the people and ordered them whatever Allâh wished him to order and said, “I used to practice I’tikâf for these ten days (i.e. the middle third but now I intend to stay in I’tikâf for the last ten days (of the month); so whoever was in I’tikâf with me should stay at his place of seclusion. I have verily been shown (the date of) this Night (of Qadr) but I have forgotten it. So search for it in the odd nights of the last ten days (of this month). I also saw myself (in a dream) prostrating in mud and water the following morning.” On the night of the 21st, the sky was covered with clouds and it rained, and the rainwater started leaking through the roof of the mosque at the praying place of the Prophet (ﷺ) . I saw with my own eyes the Prophet at the completion of the morning prayer leaving with his face covered with mud and water. (Sahîh Bukhârî 2018)

  • The night of the twenty-fourth

The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

أُنزلتْ صحفُ إبراهيمَ أولَ ليلةٍ من شهرِ رمضانَ ، و أُنزلتِ التوراةُ لستٍّ مضتْ من رمضانَ ، و أُنزل الإنجيلُ بثلاثِ عشرةَ مضتْ من رمضانَ ، و أُنزِلَ الزبورُ لثمانِ عشرةَ خلَتْ من رمضانَ ، وأُنزلَ القرآنُ لأربعٍ وعشرينَ خلتْ من رمضانَ

The scrolls of Ibrâhîm were revealed on the first night of the month of Ramadân, and the Tawrah was revealed on the 6th day of Ramadân. The Injîl was revealed on the 13th day of Ramadân and the Zabûr on the 18th day of Ramadân and the Qur’ân was revealed on the 24th of Ramadân. (Sahîh al-Jâmi’ 1497. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)

قَالَ عَبْدُ الْوَهَّابِ عَنْ أَيُّوبَ‏.‏ وَعَنْ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ الْتَمِسُوا فِي أَرْبَعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ

Ibn ‘Abbas said: “Search for it (Laylatul-Qadr) on the twenty-fourth (of Ramadân). (Sahîh Bukhârî 2022)

  • The night of the twenty-seventh

عَنْ زِرٍّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أُبَىَّ بْنَ كَعْبٍ، يَقُولُ – وَقِيلَ لَهُ إِنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ مَسْعُودٍ يَقُولُ مَنْ قَامَ السَّنَةَ أَصَابَ لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ – فَقَالَ أُبَىٌّ وَاللَّهِ الَّذِي لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ إِنَّهَا لَفِي رَمَضَانَ – يَحْلِفُ مَا يَسْتَثْنِي – وَوَاللَّهِ إِنِّي لأَعْلَمُ أَىُّ لَيْلَةٍ هِيَ ‏.‏ هِيَ اللَّيْلَةُ الَّتِي أَمَرَنَا بِهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِقِيَامِهَا هِيَ لَيْلَةُ صَبِيحَةِ سَبْعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ وَأَمَارَتُهَا أَنْ تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْسُ فِي صَبِيحَةِ يَوْمِهَا بَيْضَاءَ لاَ شُعَاعَ لَهَا

Zirr ibn Hubaish reported:I heard from Ubayy ibn Ka’b a statement made by ‘Abdullâh ibn Mas’ûd in which he said: He who gets up for prayer (every night) during the year will encounter upon Lailatul-Qadr. Ubayy said: By Allâh, whom none has the right to be worshiped but He, that (Lailatul-Qadr) is in Ramadân (He swore without reservation: ) By Allâh, I know the night; it is the night on which the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) commanded us to pray. It is that which precedes the morning of twenty-seventh and its indication is that the sun rises bright/white on that day without rays. (Sahîh Muslim 762)

He صلى الله عليه وسلم also said:

ليلةُ القدرِ ليلةُ السابعةِ أو التاسعةِ وعشرين، وإن الملائكةَ تلك الليلةَ أَكْثَرُ في الأرضِ من عَدَدِ الحَصَى

Laylatul-Qadr is the night of the twenty-seventh or twenty-ninth. Indeed, during that night, the angels on earth are more than the numbers of pebbles. (Ibn Khuzaymah 2194. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)

  • The night of the twenty-ninth

In a hadîth that has preceeded:

ليلةُ القدرِ ليلةُ السابعةِ أو التاسعةِ وعشرين، وإن الملائكةَ تلك الليلةَ أَكْثَرُ في الأرضِ من عَدَدِ الحَصَى

Laylatul-Qadr is the night of the twenty-seventh or twenty-ninth. Indeed, during that night, the angels on earth are more than the numbers of pebbles. (Ibn Khuzaymah 2194. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)

  • The last night of Ramadân

 معاوية بن أبي سفيان رضي الله عنهما قال النبي صلّى الله عليه و سلّم : الْتمِسوا ليلةَ القدرِ آخرَ ليلةٍ مِن رمضانَ

Mu’âwiyah Ibn Abû Sufyân narrated: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) said: Seek Laylatul-Qadr on the last night of Ramadân. (Sahîh Al-Jâmi’ 1238. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)


Signs of Laylatul-Qadr

The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

صبِيحةَ ليلةِ القدْرِ تَطلُعُ الشَّمسُ لا شُعاعَ لها ؛ كأنَّها طِسْتٌ حتى تَرْتَفِعَ

On the morning following Laylatul-Qadr, the sun rises without rays, resembling a dish, until it becomes high. (Sahîh al-Jâmi 3754. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

ليلةُ القدرِ ليلةٌ سمحةٌ، طلقةٌ، لا حارةٌ و لا باردةٌ، تصبحُ الشمسُ صبيحتَها ضعيفةً حمراءَ

Laylatul-Qadr is an easy and moderate night. It is neither hot nor cold. On the morning following it, the sun rises weak and reddish. (Sahîh al-Jâmi 5475. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)


Etiquette of Laylatul-Qadr

  • Making supplications

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ عَلِمْتُ أَىُّ لَيْلَةٍ لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ مَا أَقُولُ فِيهَا قَالَ ‏ “‏ قُولِي اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ تُحِبُّ الْعَفْوَ فَاعْفُ عَنِّي ‏

‘Âishah narrated: “I said: ‘O Messenger of Allâh, if I know when the Night of Al-Qadr is, then what should I say in it?” He said: ‘Say: “O Allâh, indeed You are Pardoning and You love pardon, so pardon me (Allāhumma innaka ‘Afuwwun, tuḥibbul-‘ afwa fa’fu ‘annī).’” (Sahîh Al-Jâmi’ 4423. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

  • Performing prayer

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ قَالَتْ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا دَخَلَ الْعَشْرُ شَدَّ مِئْزَرَهُ، وَأَحْيَا لَيْلَهُ، وَأَيْقَظَ أَهْلَهُ‏

Narrated by ‘Âishah: With the start of the last ten days of Ramadân, the Prophet (ﷺ) used to tighten his waist belt/garment and used to pray all the night, and used to keep his family awake for the prayers. (Sahîh Bukhârî 2024)

  • Exerting oneself in worship

الأَسْوَدَ بْنَ يَزِيدَ، يَقُولُ قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ رضى الله عنها كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَجْتَهِدُ فِي الْعَشْرِ الأَوَاخِرِ مَا لاَ يَجْتَهِدُ فِي غَيْرِهِ

‘Âishah (Allâh be pleased with her) reported that Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) used to exert himself in worship during the last ten nights to a greater extent than at any other time. (Sahîh Muslim 1175)

Ramadân Series: Part 4 – The Sahûr (Pre-Dawn Meal)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

What is As-Sahûr

Sahûr refers to the food or drink that is consumed by a person at the end of the night. It is called sahûr because it is consumed at the time of sahar which is the end of the night.  (Lisân al-‘Arab 4/351)

The Sahûr is that which is eaten and drank within As-Sahar, which is the last part of the night. Suhûr – with a Dhammah upon the Sîn – is the act of eating As-Sahûr. (Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn, Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 3)


The ruling of Suhûr

The scholars are in agreement that is it recommended to eat suhûr. (Imâm Muhammad Al-Mundhir, Al-Ijmâ’ 124)

The majority of the scholars hold that eating Suhûr is a recommendation. (Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn, Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 3)


The virtues of Sahûr

1) A blessing within Sahûr

عَنْ أَنَسٍ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ تَسَحَّرُوا فَإِنَّ فِي السُّحُورِ بَرَكَةً ‏”‏

Anas (Allâh be pleased with him) reported Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: Take Sahûr, for within Sahûr there is a blessing. (Sahîh Muslim 1095)

2) The blessed morning meal

عَنِ الْعِرْبَاضِ بْنِ سَارِيَةَ، قَالَ دَعَانِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلَى السَّحُورِ فِي رَمَضَانَ فَقَالَ ‏ “‏ هَلُمَّ إِلَى الْغَدَاءِ الْمُبَارَكِ ‏”‏

Narrated by Al-Irbâd ibn Sâriyyah: The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) invited me to a meal shortly before dawn in Ramadân saying: Come to the blessed morning meal. (Abû Dawûd 2344. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

3) The command (of recommendation) by the prophet

عَنِ الْمِقْدَامِ بْنِ مَعْدِيكَرِبَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ عَلَيْكُمْ بِغَدَاءِ السُّحُورِ فَإِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَدَاءُ الْمُبَارَكُ ‏”‏ ‏

Narrated from Al-Miqdâm ibn Ma’dikarib that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:”You should take Sahûr for it is the blessed breakfast.” (An-Nasâ’i 2166. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

4) It differs from the People of the Book

عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ إِنَّ فَصْلَ مَا بَيْنَ صِيَامِنَا وَصِيَامِ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أَكْلَةُ السَّحَرِ ‏”

Narrated by ‘Amr ibn al-‘Âs:The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) as saying: The difference between our fasting and that of the people of the Book is eating Suhûr. (Abû Dawûd 2343. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

5) Do not abandon it even if you only take a sip of water


عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ السُّحُورُ أَكْلَةٌ بَرَكَةٌ فَلَا تَدَعُوهُ وَلَوْ أَنْ يَجْرَعَ أَحَدُكُمْ جَرْعَةً مِنْ مَاءٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى الْمُتَسَحِّرِينَ

Abû Sa’îd al-Khudrî reported: The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said, “The Suhûr is a blessed meal, so do not abandon it even if you take only a sip of water. Verily, Allâh and his angels send blessings upon those who take the Suhûr” (Musnad Imâm Ahmad 11101. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî & Sahîh by Shu’ayb Al-Arnaût)


What to eat for Sahûr

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ نِعْمَ سَحُورُ الْمُؤْمِنِ التَّمْرُ ‏”‏

Narrated by Abû Hurairah:The Prophet (ﷺ) as saying: The best Sahûr for the believer is dates. (Abû Dawûd 2345. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)


The time of Sahûr

The True Fajr: The light of dawn spreading across the horizon.

﴿وَكُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ الصِّيَامَ إِلَى الَّيْلِ﴾

And eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall (Sûrah Al-Baqarah 2:187)

Ibn Kathîr said: Allâh has allowed eating and drinking, along with having sexual intercourse, as we have stated, during any part of the night until the light of dawn is distinguished from the darkness of the night. Allâh has described that time as ‘distinguishing the white thread from the black thread.’ (Tafsir Ibn Kathîr 2:187)

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّ بِلاَلاً، كَانَ يُؤَذِّنُ بِلَيْلٍ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ كُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يُؤَذِّنَ ابْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ، فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يُؤَذِّنُ حَتَّى يَطْلُعَ الْفَجْرُ ‏”‏‏

Narrated by ‘Âishah: Bilâl used to pronounce the Adhân at night, so Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ)? said, “Carry on taking your meals (eat and drink) till Ibn Um Maktûm pronounces the Adhân, for he does not pronounce it till it is Fajr (dawn). (Sahîh Bukhârî 1918)

Q1: What is meant by Al-Fajr-ul-Kâdhib (false dawn) and Al-Fajr-ul-Sâdiq (true dawn)? According to which one of them do we offer Salâh (Prayer)? How can we calculate the time of Al-Fajr-ul-Sâdiq?

A: Al-Fajr-ul-Kâdhib appears as a rectangle in the sky from the top to the bottom of the horizon, while Al-Fajr-ul-Sâdiq appears in the sky spreading along the horizon. The time for offering the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer starts with the appearance of Al-Fajr-ul-Sâdiq.

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ : Member – Deputy Chairman – Chairman
Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan – Abdul-Razzaq Afify – Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz (Alifta.gov.sa)


The interval between Sahûr and the Fajr prayer

عَنْ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ تَسَحَّرْنَا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ قَامَ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ‏.‏ قُلْتُ كَمْ كَانَ بَيْنَ الأَذَانِ وَالسَّحُورِ قَالَ قَدْرُ خَمْسِينَ آيَةً

Anas narrated: Zaid bin Thâbit said, “We took the Sahûr with the Prophet (ﷺ) . Then he stood for the prayer.” I asked, “What was the interval between the Sahûr and the Adhân?” He replied, “The interval was sufficient to recite fifty verses of the Qur’ân.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 1921)

عَنْ عَدِيٍّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ زِرَّ بْنَ حُبَيْشٍ، قَالَ تَسَحَّرْتُ مَعَ حُذَيْفَةَ ثُمَّ خَرَجْنَا إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ فَلَمَّا أَتَيْنَا الْمَسْجِدَ صَلَّيْنَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَأُقِيمَتِ الصَّلاَةُ وَلَيْسَ بَيْنَهُمَا إِلاَّ هُنَيْهَةٌ

Zirr bin Hubaish said:”I had Sahûr with Hudhaifah, then we went out to pray. When we came to the Masjid we prayed two Rakahs, then the Iqâmah for prayer was said, and there was only a short time between them.” (An Nasâ’i 2153. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)


Delaying Sahûr

عَنْ أَبِي عَطِيَّةَ، قَالَ قُلْتُ لِعَائِشَةَ فِينَا رَجُلاَنِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَحَدُهُمَا يُعَجِّلُ الإِفْطَارَ وَيُؤَخِّرُ السُّحُورَ وَالآخَرُ يُؤَخِّرُ الإِفْطَارَ وَيُعَجِّلُ السُّحُورَ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ أَيُّهُمَا الَّذِي يُعَجِّلُ الإِفْطَارَ وَيُؤَخِّرُ السُّحُورَ قُلْتُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْعُودٍ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ هَكَذَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَصْنَعُ

Abû ‘Atiyyah narrated: “I said to ‘Âishah: ‘Among us there are two of the Companions of the Prophet, one of whom hastens Iftâr and delays Sahûr, and the other delays Iftâr and hastens Sahûr.’ She said: ‘Which of them is the one who hastens Iftâr and delays Sahûr?’ I said: “Abdullâh ibn Masûd.’ She said: ‘That is what the Messenger of Allâh used to do.”‘ (An-Nasâ’i 2158. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

Ramadân Series: Part 3 – 15 Virtues Of Fasting

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

1) Forgiveness & Paradise

﴿إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَـتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ وَالْقَـنِتِينَ وَالْقَـنِتَـتِ وَالصَّـدِقِينَ وَالصَّـدِقَـتِ وَالصَّـبِرِينَ وَالصَّـبِرَتِ وَالْخَـشِعِينَ وَالْخَـشِعَـتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَـتِوالصَّـئِمِينَ والصَّـئِمَـتِ وَالْحَـفِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَـفِـظَـتِ وَالذَكِـرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً وَالذَكِرَتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْراً عَظِيماً﴾

Verily, the Muslims: men and women, the believers: men and women, the Qanit (obedient): men and the women, the men and women who are truthful, the men and the women who are patient, the Khashi (humble): men and the women, the men and the women who give Sadaqat (zakah etc..), the men and the women who fast, the men and the women who guard their chastity and the men and the women who remember Allâh much with their hearts and tongues, Allâh has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward. (Sûrah Ahzâb 33:35)

Ibn Kathîr said:… Here Allâh tells us that for all of those mentioned in this Ayah, He has prepared for them forgiveness of their sins and a great reward, meaning, Paradise. (Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr 33:35)


2) Forgiveness for all the previous [minor] sins

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ مَنْ صَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ ‏”

Abû Hurairah narrated : Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever observes fasts during the month of Ramadân out of sincere faith, and hoping to attain Allâh’s reward, then all his past sins will be forgiven.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 38)


3) Ar-Rayyân – a gate in Paradise

عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ إِنَّ فِي الْجَنَّةِ بَابًا يُقَالُ لَهُ الرَّيَّانُ يَدْخُلُ مِنْهُ الصَّائِمُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لاَ يَدْخُلُ مَعَهُمْ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُمْ يُقَالُ أَيْنَ الصَّائِمُونَ فَيَدْخُلُونَ مِنْهُ فَإِذَا دَخَلَ آخِرُهُمْ أُغْلِقَ فَلَمْ يَدْخُلْ مِنْهُ أَحَدٌ

Sahl ibn Sa’d (Allâh be pleased with him) reported Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: In Paradise there is a gate which is called Rayyân through which only the people who fast would enter on the Day on Resurrection. None else would enter along with them. It would be proclaimed: Where are the people who fast that they should be admitted into it? And when the last of them would enter, it would be closed and no one would enter it. (Sahîh Muslim 1152)


4) The gates of Paradise are opened

مَوْلَى التَّيْمِيِّينَ أَنَّ أَبَاهُ، حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّهُ، سَمِعَ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ إِذَا دَخَلَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ فُتِّحَتْ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ، وَغُلِّقَتْ أَبْوَابُ جَهَنَّمَ، وَسُلْسِلَتِ الشَّيَاطِينُ ‏

Narrated by Abû Hurairah : Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “When the month of Ramadân starts, the gates of the heavens are opened and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are fettered.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 1899)

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، – رضى الله عنه – أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ إِذَا جَاءَ رَمَضَانُ فُتِّحَتْ أَبْوَابُ الْجَنَّةِ وَغُلِّقَتْ أَبْوَابُ النَّارِ وَصُفِّدَتِ الشَّيَاطِينُ ‏”‏

Abû Hurairah reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:When there comes the month of Ramadân, the gates of Paradise are opened, and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are fettered. (Sahîh Muslim 1079)


5) Removal from the Hellfire by a great distance

حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ عُقْبَةَ بْنِ عَامِرٍ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ مَنْ صَامَ يَوْمًا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بَاعَدَ اللَّهُ مِنْهُ جَهَنَّمَ مَسِيرَةَ مِائَةِ عَامٍ ‏”‏

It was narrated by Uqbah bin ‘Âmir that the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said:”Whoever fasts one day in the cause of Allâh, The Mighty and Sublime, Allâh will separate him the distance of one hundred years from the fire.” (Sunan An-Nasâ’i 2256. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ مَنْ صَامَ يَوْمًا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بَاعَدَ اللَّهُ وَجْهَهُ عَنِ النَّارِ سَبْعِينَ خَرِيفًا ‏”‏

Abû Sa’îd al-Khudrî (Allâh be pleased with him) reported Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:He who observes fast for a day in the way of Allâh, He will remove his face from Hell to the extent of seventy autumns distance. (Sahîh Muslim 1153)


6) A shield against the Fire

فَقَالَ عُثْمَانُ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ يَقُولُ: ‏ “‏ الصِّيَامُ جُنَّةٌ مِنَ النَّارِ كَجُنَّةِ أَحَدِكُمْ مِنَ الْقِتَالِ

‘Uthmân said: “I heard the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) say: ‘Fasting is a shield against the Fire just like the shield of anyone of you while fighting.’” (Sunan Ibn Mâjah 1639. Declared Sahîh upon the conditions of Muslim & Bukhârî by Shu’ayb Al-Arnaût)


7) A trench between oneself & the Hellfire

عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ الْبَاهِلِيِّ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ مَنْ صَامَ يَوْمًا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ النَّارِ خَنْدَقًا كَمَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ ‏”

Narrated by Abû Umâmah Al-Bâhili: That the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Whoever fasts a day in the cause of Allâh, Allâh shall put between him and the Fire a trench whose distance is like that between the heavens and the earth.” (At-Tirmidhî 1624. Declared Hasan Sahîh by Al-Albânî)


8) The smell of the mouth of the fasting person is better than musk

شِهَابٍ أَخْبَرَنِي سَعِيدُ بْنُ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ “… فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ لَخِلْفَةُ فَمِ الصَّائِمِ أَطْيَبُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مِنْ رِيحِ الْمِسْكِ ‏”

Abû Hurairah reported Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: By (Allâh) in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad, the breath of the observer of fast is better to Allâh than the fragrance of musk. (Sahîh Muslim 1151)


9) The reward of fasting is for Allâh & He will reward for it

أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كُلُّ عَمَلِ ابْنِ آدَمَ لَهُ إِلاَّ الصِّيَامَ هُوَ لِي وَأَنَا أَجْزِي بِهِ

Abû Hurairah reported Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:Allâh, The-Mighty & The-Majestic said: Every act of the son of Âdam is for him except fasting. It is for Me, and I will give a reward for it…(Sahîh Muslim 1151)

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ كُلُّ عَمَلِ ابْنِ آدَمَ يُضَاعَفُ الْحَسَنَةُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا إِلَى سَبْعِمِائَةِ ضِعْفٍ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلاَّ الصَّوْمَ فَإِنَّهُ لِي وَأَنَا أَجْزِي بِهِ

Abû Hurairah (Allâh be pleased with him) reported Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:Every (good) deed of the son of Âdam would be multiplied by tenfold to seven hundredfold reward. Allâh, The Exalted and Majestic, has said: With the exception of fasting, for it is done for Me and I will give a reward for it… (Sahîh Muslim 1151)

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:

Allâh has attributed the reward the reward of fasting to Himself, that is because good deeds are multiplied by numbers, one good deed is multiplied by ten to seven hundred and more, but as for fasting, Allâh has attributed its reward to Himself without the consideration of a number. Allâh, The Most-High, is The Most-Generous, The Most-Bounteous and of course the greatness of gifts is based on the greatness of the giver. Therefore the reward of fasting will be very great without a limit. (Majâlis Sharh Ramadân, 2)


10) The two moments of joy

لِلصَّائِمِ فَرْحَتَانِ فَرْحَةٌ عِنْدَ فِطْرِهِ وَفَرْحَةٌ عِنْدَ لِقَاءِ رَبِّهِ

There are two occasions of joy for one who fasts, joy when he breaks it, and joy when he meets his Lord (Sahîh Muslim 1151)


11) The Fast will intercede for one on The Day of Judgement

The prophet (ﷺ) said:

الصِّيامُ و القرآنُ يَشْفَعَانِ للعبدِ يومَ القيامةِ ، يقولُ : الصِّيامُ : أَيْ رَبِّ مَنَعْتُهُ الطَّعَامَ و الشهوةَ ، فشفعْني فيهِ ، و يقولُ القرآنُ : مَنَعْتُهُ النَّوْمَ بِالليلِ ، فَشَفِّعْنِي فيهِ ، قال : فيشفعانِ

Fasting & the Qur’ân will intercede for the servant on the day of Judgement, saying (the Fast) :’Oh Lord, I have prevented him from food and desire, so make me an intercessor for him’. And the Qur’ân will say: ‘I have prevented him from sleeping at night so make me an intercessor for him’. Then Allâh will grant them intercession. (Sahîh At-Targhîb 984. Declared Hasan Sahîh by Al-Albânî)


12) There is nothing like or equal to Sawm (fast)

عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ، قَالَ أَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ مُرْنِي بِأَمْرٍ آخُذُهُ عَنْكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏ “‏ عَلَيْكَ بِالصَّوْمِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ مِثْلَ لَهُ ‏”‏ ‏

Abû Umâmah said: ‘I came to the Messenger of Allâh and said: Tell me of something that I may take (learn) from you. He said: “Take to fasting, for there is nothing like it.”‘ ‘ (An-Nasâ’i 2220. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

عَنْ رَجَاءِ بْنِ حَيْوَةَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُمَامَةَ الْبَاهِلِيُّ، قَالَ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مُرْنِي بِأَمْرٍ يَنْفَعُنِي اللَّهُ بِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏ “‏ عَلَيْكَ بِالصِّيَامِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ مِثْلَ لَهُ ‏”‏

Raja ibn Haiwah said:”Abû Umâmah Al-Bâhili narrated to me: ‘I said: O Messenger of Allâh, tell me of something by which Allâh will benefit me. He said: Take to fasting, for there is nothing like it.”‘ (An-Nasâ’i 2221. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَىُّ الْعَمَلِ أَفْضَلُ قَالَ ‏ “‏ عَلَيْكَ بِالصَّوْمِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ عِدْلَ لَهُ ‏”

It was narrated from Abû Umâmah that he asked the Messenger of Allâh:”Which deed is best?” he said: “Take to fasting, for there is nothing equal to it.”(An-Nasâ’i 2222. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)


13) The supplication of the fasting person is answered

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ ثَلاَثَةٌ لاَ تُرَدُّ دَعْوَتُهُمُ الصَّائِمُ حَتَّى يُفْطِرَ وَالإِمَامُ الْعَادِلُ وَدَعْوَةُ الْمَظْلُومِ يَرْفَعُهَا اللَّهُ فَوْقَ الْغَمَامِ وَيَفْتَحُ لَهَا أَبْوَابَ السَّمَاءِ وَيَقُولُ الرَّبُّ وَعِزَّتِي لأَنْصُرَنَّكَ وَلَوْ بَعْدَ حِينٍ ‏”‏

Abû Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allâh صلى الله عليه وسلم said:”There are three whose supplication is not rejected: The fasting person until he breaks his fast, the just ruler, and the supplication of the oppressed person; Allâh raises it up above the clouds and opens the gates of heaven to it. And the Lord says: ‘By My might, I shall surely aid you, even if it should be after a while.’” (At-Tirmidhî 3598, Ibn Mâjah, Musnad of Imâm Ahmad. Declared Hasan by Ibn Hajr in Mishkât)


14) People are freed from the Fire every night

عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ‏ “‏ إِنَّ لِلَّهِ عِنْدَ كُلِّ فِطْرٍ عُتَقَاءَ وَذَلِكَ فِي كُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ ‏”‏

Jâbir narrated that the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said:“At every breaking of the fast Allâh has people whom He frees (from the Fire), and that happens every night.” (Ibn Mâjah 1643. Declared Hasan Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ قَالَ: ‏ “‏ إِذَا كَانَتْ أَوَّلُ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ صُفِّدَتِ الشَّيَاطِينُ وَمَرَدَةُ الْجِنِّ وَغُلِّقَتْ أَبْوَابُ النَّارِ فَلَمْ يُفْتَحْ مِنْهَا بَابٌ. وَفُتِحَتْ أَبْوَابُ الْجَنَّةِ فَلَمْ يُغْلَقْ مِنْهَا بَابٌ. وَنَادَى مُنَادٍ: يَا بَاغِيَ الْخَيْرِ أَقْبِلْ. وَيَا بَاغِيَ الشَّرِّ أَقْصِرْ. وَلِلَّهِ عُتَقَاءُ مِنَ النَّارِ. وَذَلِكَ فِي كُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ ‏

Abû Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said:“When the first night of Ramadân comes, the devils & mischievous jinns are chained up, and the gates of the Fire are closed, and none of its gates are opened. The gates of Paradise are opened and none of its gates are closed. And a caller cries out: ‘O seeker of good, proceed, O seeker of evil, stop.’ And Allâh has necks (people) whom He frees (from the Fire), and that happens every night.” (Ibn Mâjah 1642. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)


15) Fasting Ramadân is like fasting 10 months


عَنْ ثَوْبَانَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ صِيَامُ رَمَضَانَ بِعَشَرَةِ أَشْهُرٍ وَصِيَامُ السِّتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ بِشَهْرَيْنِ فَذَلِكَ صِيَامُ السَّنَةِ

Thawbân reported: The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said, “Fasting the month of Ramadân is like ten months of fasting and fasting six days of Shawwal is like two months of fasting. Thus, they are like fasting for a year.” (Sahîh At-Targhîb 1007. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

Ramadân Series: Part 2 – The Categories Of People In Ramadân – Who Is Exempt, Who Must Make Up The Missed Days, Who Must Pay Fidyah

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

1) The prepubescent child

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:

The prepubescent child is not obliged to fast until he reaches puberty. This is based on the saying of the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم

رُفِعَ الْقَلَمُ عَنْ ثَلَاثَةٍ عَنْ الصَّغِيرِ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ وَعَنْ النَّائِمِ حَتَّى يَسْتَيْقِظَ وَعَنْ الْمُصَابِ حَتَّى يُكْشَفَ عَنْهُ‏.

The Pen has been lifted from three: from the child until he reaches puberty, from the sleeper until he wakes up and from the insane until he regains his sanity.” (Musnad Imam Ahmad 940. Declared Sahîh by Ahmad Shâkir)

However it is recommended for his guardian to command him to fast in order to train him upon the obedience to his Lord before he reaches puberty, in attempt to follow the examples of the Salaf-us-Sâlih (pious predecessors). The prophets companions used to make their children fast; they would bring them to the Mosque along with some toys that were made of wool. When the children complained about being hungry and started to cry they would give them the toys in order to keep them busy [Sahîh Muslim 1136].

A boy becomes pubescent with one of these three signs:

The first: having a wet dream. The proof is Allâhs statement:

وَإِذَا بَلَغَ ٱلۡأَطۡفَٰلُ مِنكُمُ ٱلۡحُلُمَ فَلۡيَسۡتَـٔۡذِنُواْ كَمَا ٱسۡتَـٔۡذَنَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡ ءَايَٰتِهِۦۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٞ ٩٥

And when the children among you reaches the wet dream (comes to puberty), then let them (also) ask for permission, as those senior to them (in age). Thus Allâh makes clear His Âyât (Commandments and legal obligations) for you. And Allâh is All-Knowing, All-Wise. (Sûrah An-Nûr 24:59)

The second sign: growing pubic hair. This is based on the statement of ‘Âtiyyah Al-Qurathî that he reported:

كُنْتُ مِنْ سَبْىِ بَنِي قُرَيْظَةَ فَكَانُوا يَنْظُرُونَ فَمَنْ أَنْبَتَ الشَّعْرَ قُتِلَ وَمَنْ لَمْ يُنْبِتْ لَمْ يُقْتَلْ فَكُنْتُ فِيمَنْ لَمْ يُنْبِتْ

I was among the captives of Banû Quraydhah. They (the Companions) examined us, and those who had begun to grow pubic hair were killed, and those who had not were not killed. I was among those who had not grown hair. (Abû Dawûd 4404. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

The third sign: reaching the age of fifteen.

أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عُرِضَهُ يَوْمَ أُحُدٍ وَهُوَ ابْنُ أَرْبَعَ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً فَلَمْ يُجِزْهُ وَعُرِضَهُ يَوْمَ الْخَنْدَقِ وَهُوَ ابْنُ خَمْسَ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً فَأَجَازَهُ

Ibn ‘Umar said: I was presented before the prophet (ﷺ) on the day of Uhud when I was fourteen years old, but he did not allow me (to participate in the battle). I was again presented before him on the day of Khandaq when I was fifteen years old, Then he allowed me. (Abû Dawûd 4406. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

قَالَ نَافِعٌ حَدَّثْتُ بِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ، عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ هَذَا الْحَدُّ بَيْنَ الصَّغِيرِ وَالْكَبِيرِ

Nâfi’ said: When I mentioned this tradition to ‘Umar ibn Abd al-Azîz he said : That is the dividing line between the age of minor and the major [i.e 15 years]. (Abû Dawûd 4407. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

For a female the same signs of puberty are applied with the addition of the monthly period. Therefore whenever a woman sees blood, she has reached puberty. Her pen of accountability will start running even if it is before the age of ten.


2) The insane person (one who has lost his mind)

Fasting is not obligatory upon him due to the aforementioned hadith ” the pen has been lifted from three…” from among the three is the insane person, until he comes back to his senses.

His fasting is invalid because he does not have an intellect to comprehend his worship or intend it. And worship is not accepted except with an intention – the proof is the prophets statement صلى الله عليه وسلم :

إِنَّمَا الأَعْمَالُ بِالنِّيَّاتِ، وَإِنَّمَا لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مَا نَوَى،

Actions are considered based on their intentions, and a person will only get rewarded based on what he intends… (Sahîh Bukhârî 1)


3) The one who has reached the age of senility or mental infirmity

For these individuals neither fasting nor feeding is obligatory upon them, as they do not have the ability to distinguish between things. Thus resembling a child who has not reached the age of discernment.


4) The one who is in a state of perpetual disability [chronically ill], old person etc.. and are not able to fast

For example, a fragile old man or woman or one suffering from a terminal sickness such as cancer. For these individuals fasting is not obligatory upon them because they do not have the ability to fast.

Additionally, those who have to perform difficult jobs under harsh conditions (i.e coal miners) and who could not find any other way to support themselves, and as such cannot endure the additional burden of fasting. All of these people are allowed to break their fast, because such a practise would place too much hardship on them during any part of the year.

Allâh says:

لَا يُكَلِّفُ ٱللَّهُ نَفۡسًا إِلَّا وُسۡعَهَاۚ

Allâh does not burden a soul beyond what it can bear. (Sûrah Al-Baqarah 2:286)

However, it is a must for them to replace the daily fast with feeding a poor person everyday. You are given the choice of either giving each poor person a mudd [type of volumetric measurement] of food (i.e raw grains) which is one-fourth of prophetic sâ’ or you can cook the food and invite poor people according to the number of days that you have not fasted.

عَنْ عَطَاءٍ، سَمِعَ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، يَقْرَأُ ‏{‏وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطَوَّقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ‏}‏‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ لَيْسَتْ بِمَنْسُوخَةٍ، هُوَ الشَّيْخُ الْكَبِيرُ وَالْمَرْأَةُ الْكَبِيرَةُ لاَ يَسْتَطِيعَانِ أَنْ يَصُومَا، فَلْيُطْعِمَانِ مَكَانَ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ مِسْكِينً

‘Atâ narrated : That he heard Ibn ‘Abbâs reciting the Divine Verse:– “And for those who can fast with difficulty they have a choice either to fast, or feed a poor person for every day..” (2.184) Ibn ‘Abbâs said, “This Verse is not abrogated, it is meant for the old men and old women who are unable to fast, so they should feed one poor person for each day of fasting (instead of fasting). (Sahîh Bukhârî 4505)


5) The sick person whose sickness is hoped to be cured

For this individual there are 3 states:

The 1st state: if he is able to fast without any difficulties or harm then in this case it is obligatory upon him to fast. That is because he does not have a valid excuse which allows him to break his fast.

The 2nd state: if he is able to fast but with some difficulties, without the fear of harming himself by fasting, then he should break the fast. This is based on Allâhs statement:

وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوۡ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٖ فَعِدَّةٞ مِّنۡ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَۗ

and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. (Sûrah Al-Baqarah 2:185)

It is disliked for him to fast along with difficulty because by doing this he is leaving the ease which Allâh has given him and instead chooses to torture himself. The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

إن اللهَ يُحبُّ أن تُؤتَى رُخصُه كما يكرهُ أن تُؤتَى معصيتُه

Allâh loves that His concessions be taken just as He dislikes to be sinned against. (Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânì in Irwâ al-Ghalîl 564)

The 3rd state: If fasting actually harms him, then it is not permissible for him to fast based on Allâhs statement :

وَلَا تَقۡتُلُوٓاْ أَنفُسَكُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمۡ رَحِيمٗا ٩٢

And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allâh is Most Merciful to you. (Sûrah An-Nisâ 4:29)

Also because of the prophets statement:

إنَّ لنفسِكَ عليكَ حقًّا

Verily your body has a right over you. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1968)

From amongst the rights of your body is that you should not harm yourself, but rather take Allâhs legislative concessions.


6) The women who is menstruating or undergoing post-natal bleeding

It is not permissible for her to fast, if she fasts her fast is invalid. This is due to the prophets statement:

أَلَيْسَ إِذَا حَاضَتْ لَمْ تُصَلِّ وَلَمْ تَصُمْ ‏”‏‏.‏ قُلْنَ بَلَى‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ فَذَلِكَ مِنْ نُقْصَانِ دِينِهَا ‏

Isn’t it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?” The women replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her religion.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 304)

The post-natal bleeding is similar to the menstrual bleeding – the same rulings are applied; she must make up the number of days that she has missed.

‘Âisha said:

 كَانَ يُصِيبُنَا ذَلِكَ فَنُؤْمَرُ بِقَضَاءِ الصَّوْمِ وَلاَ نُؤْمَرُ بِقَضَاءِ الصَّلاَةِ

We passed through this (period of menstruation), and we were ordered to complete the fasts, but were not ordered to complete the prayers. (Sahîh Muslim 335)


7) A nursing mother or a pregnant woman

The nursing mother or the pregnant woman who fears harm for herself or her baby due to fasting, then it is permissible to break the fast and pay the “ransom”. They do not have to make up the missed days.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى وَضَعَ شَطْرَ الصَّلاَةِ أَوْ نِصْفَ الصَّلاَةِ وَالصَّوْمَ عَنِ الْمُسَافِرِ وَعَنِ الْمُرْضِعِ أَوِ الْحُبْلَى

Allâh has remitted half the prayer to a traveller, and fasting to the traveller, the woman who is suckling an infant and the woman who is pregnant. (Abû Dawûd 2408. Declared Hasan Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

أَنَّ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ أُثْبِتَتْ لِلْحُبْلَى وَالْمُرْضِعِ

Ibn ‘Abbâs said “The verse concerning the payment of ransom [2:184] stands valid for pregnant and the suckling woman.” (Abû Dawûd 2317. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، ‏{‏ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ‏}‏ قَالَ كَانَتْ رُخْصَةً لِلشَّيْخِ الْكَبِيرِ وَالْمَرْأَةِ الْكَبِيرَةِ وَهُمَا يُطِيقَانِ الصِّيَامَ أَنْ يُفْطِرَا وَيُطْعِمَا مَكَانَ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ مِسْكِينًا وَالْحُبْلَى وَالْمُرْضِعُ إِذَا خَافَتَا – قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ يَعْنِي عَلَى أَوْلاَدِهِمَا – أَفْطَرَتَا وَأَطْعَمَتَا

Abdulláh ibn Abbâs said: Explaining the verse; “And for those who can fast with difficulty they have a choice either to fast, or feed a poor person for every day..” he said: This was a concession granted to the aged man and woman who were able to keep fast (but with difficulty); they were allowed to leave the fast and instead feed an poor person for each fast; (and a concession) to pregnant and suckling woman when they feared harm (to themselves or the baby) .

Abû Dawûd said: Meaning: “Fear for their children, then the two of them do not fast, and they feed. (Abû Dawûd 2318. Declared Sahîh by Shu’ayb Arnaût)

روي مالك في الموطأ أن عبد الله بن عمر سئل عن المرآة الحامل إذا خافت على ولدها و اشتد عليها الصيام فقال تفطر و تطعم مكان كل يوم مسكينا مدا من حنطة بمد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم

Mâlik narrated that he had heard that ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Umar was asked about what a pregnant woman should do if the fast became difficult for her and she feared for her child, and he said, “She should break the fast and feed a poor man one mudd of wheat in place of every day, using the mudd of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (Muwatta of Imâm Mâlik 683/596)


The above has been taken from Majâlis Sharh Ramadân, Sharh Umdah al-Hakam of Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn & Fiqh As-Sunnah of Sayyid Sâbiq.

Ramadân Series: Part 1 – As-Siyâm, Ruling of Fasting in Ramadân, On Whom Its Obligatory, The Medical Benefits Of Fasting

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

The meaning of As-Siyâm (fasting)

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:

As-Siyâm in the language means ‘to refrain from a thing’. In the Shari’ah (Islamic Legislation) it means ‘to refrain from food, drink and the rest of the nullifiers, from the appearance of the second Fajr till the setting of the sun, in worship of Allâh, The Mighty & Majestic’. (Sharh Umdat-ul Ahkâm, ch. The Book of Fasting)

As-Sayyid Sâbiq said:

[Explaining the linguistic meaning of Sawm].. For example, a verse in the Qur’ân says: “.. Verily, I have vowed a fast (Sawma) to Ar-Ramân (The Most-Merciful) so I shall not speak to any human being this day.” Sûrah Maryam 19:26) – [Maryam vowed to abstain] that is from speaking. (Fiqh As-Sunnah, ch. As-Siyâm)


The meaning of Ramadân

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:

Ramadân is the month between Sha’bân and Shawwâl. It is called (Ramadân) due to the severity of the heat therein when it was named. (Sharh Umdat-ul Ahkâm hadith 174)


The Kinds of Obligatory Fasts

Ibn Rushd said:

Obligatory fasting is of three kinds:

1) Obligatory fasting during a fixed time, and this is fasting during the month of Ramadân itself.

2) The second is prescribed due to a reason, and this is fasting for expiation (kaffâra).

3) Fasting that a person imposes on himself, this is fasting after a vow (nadhr). (Bidâyat al-Mujtahid 330)


The obligation to fast in Ramadân

Ibn Rushd said:

Fasting during the month of Ramadân is obligatory on the basis of the Qur’ân, the Sunnah, and the Ijma’ (Scholarly Consensus).

In the Qur’ân the basis are the words of Allâh :

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيۡكُمُ ٱلصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَتَّقُونَ ٣٨١

O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious). (Sûrah Al-Baqarah 2:183)

In the Sunnah it is the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم :

قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ بُنِيَ الإِسْلاَمُ عَلَى خَمْسٍ شَهَادَةِ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلاَةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ وَحَجِّ الْبَيْتِ وَصَوْمِ رَمَضَانَ ‏”‏

Abdullâh son of ‘Umar said that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: The pillars of al-Islâm are five (pillars), testifying (the fact) that there is no one worthy of worship except Allâh, that Muhammad is His servant and messenger, and the establishment of prayer, payment of Zakâh, performing Pilgrimage to the House (Ka’bâ) and the fast of Ramadân. (Sahîh Muslim 16)

Consensus is found as there is no disagreement that has been attributed to any of the Imâms over this. (Bidâyat al-Mujtahid 331)

As-Sayyid Sâbiq said:

The whole Muslim nation agrees upon the obligation of fasting Ramadân, and that it is one of the pillars of Islâm which are known necessarily from the religion. The one who denies this is a disbeliever, an apostate from Islâm. (Fiqh As-Sunnah 2/109)


When this obligation was made

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:

Fasting was made obligatory upon this nation in the second year after the Hijrah. (Sharh Umdat-ul Ahkâm, ch. The Book of Fasting).


On whom fasting Ramadân is obligatory upon

As-Sayyid Sâbiq said :

The scholars agree that fasting is obligatory upon the [1] Muslim, who is of [2]sound mind, [3] adult, [4] healthy, and is a [5] resident.

(Additionally] for the woman, she must not be [6] menstruating or [7]having post-natal bleeding. (Fiqh As-Sunnah 2/114)

Evidence:

[1] Muslim :

مَا كَانَ لِلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ أَن يَعۡمُرُواْ مَسَٰجِدَ ٱللَّهِ شَٰهِدِينَ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِهِم بِٱلۡكُفۡرِۚ أُوْلَٰٓئِكَ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَٰلُهُمۡ وَفِي ٱلنَّارِ هُمۡ خَٰلِدُونَ ٧١

It is not for the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh), to maintain the Mosques of Allâh (i.e. to pray and worship Allâh therein, to look after their cleanliness and their building, etc.), while they witness against their ownselves of disbelief. The works of such are in vain and in Fire shall they abide. (Sûrah At-Tawbah 9:17)

[2] Sanity & [3] Adult:

عَنْ عَلِيٍّ، رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ رُفِعَ الْقَلَمُ عَنْ ثَلَاثَةٍ عَنْ الصَّغِيرِ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ وَعَنْ النَّائِمِ حَتَّى يَسْتَيْقِظَ وَعَنْ الْمُصَابِ حَتَّى يُكْشَفَ عَنْهُ‏.

It was narrated from ‘Alî (رضي الله عنه):I heard the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) say: `The Pen has been lifted from three: from the child until he reaches puberty, from the sleeper until he wakes up and from the insane until he regains his sanity.” (Musnad Imam Ahmad 940. Declared Sahîh by Ahmad Shâkir)

[4] Healthy & [5] Resident:

أَيَّامٗا مَّعۡدُودَٰتٖۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوۡ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٖ فَعِدَّةٞ مِّنۡ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَۚ

Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. (Sûrah Al-Baqarah 2:184)

[6] Menstruating & [7] Post-natal bleeding :

أَلَيْسَ إِذَا حَاضَتْ لَمْ تُصَلِّ وَلَمْ تَصُمْ ‏”‏‏.‏ قُلْنَ بَلَى‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ فَذَلِكَ مِنْ نُقْصَانِ دِينِهَا ‏

The prophet said:… Isn’t it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?” The women replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her religion.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 304)

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:

The laws of Nifâs (post-natal bleeding) are the same as the laws governing menses [i.e not being able to pray or fast etc…]. (Natural Blood of Women pg.35)


From the wisdoms of fasting

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:

Allâh has obligated it upon all nations because it is a magnificent act of worship in which the truthfulness of the servants love for his Lord is displayed. As is his honoring of Him and the desire for His Pleasure, by way of that which he endures from patience upon the pains of hunger and thirst, and the curbing of the lustful urges giving precedence to that which Allâh loves and is pleased with over that which it contains from training the soul to have patience and firm strength upon the obedience of Allâh; reminding the servant of that which Allâh has blessed him from food, drink, and other than it from that which the soul desires.

Moreover, he is reminded about the state of his indigent or deprived brothers who do not have the blessing of food, drink, and the like from the desires of the soul, either perpetually or sometimes. Thus, he sympathises with them and has compassion for them. Besides this there are other benefits of fasting which are geberal and specific. (Sharh Umdat-ul Ahkâm, ch. The Book of Fasting)


The medical, spiritual and physical benefits of fasting

Fasting brings a wholesome physiological rest for the digestive tract and central nervous system, and normalises metabolism. (Allan Cott, Fasting As A Way Of Life)

1) As compared to other diet plans, Fasting during Ramadân contains no malnutrition or inadequate calorie intake since there is no restriction on the type or amount of food intake during iftâr or suhûr.

2) Fasting in Ramadân is voluntarily undertaken. It is not a prescribed imposition from a physician. In the hypothalamus part of the brain there is a centre called ‘lipostat’ which controls body mass. When sever and rapid weight loss is achieved by a starvation diet, the centre does not recognise this as normal and, therefore re-programs itself to cause weight gain rapidly once the person goes off the starvation diet. So the only effective way of losing weight is slow, self-controlled, and gradual weight loss by modifying our behaviour, and the attitude about eating while eliminating excess food. Ramadân is a month of self-regulation and self-training in terms of food intake thereby causing hopefully a permanent change in lipostat reading.

3) Ramadân fasting is actually an exercise in self-discipline. For those who are chain smokers, nibble food constantly, or drink coffee every hour; it is a good way to break the habit, hoping that the effect will continue after the month is over.

4) Psychological effect of Ramadân fasting are also well observed by the description of people who fast. They describe a feeling of inner peace and tranquility. The prophet advised them : “if one slanders you or wants to fight you, tell him I am fasting”. Thus, personal hostility during the month is minimal.

6) Dr. Shahid Athar said: Within the first few days of Ramadân, I begin to feel better even before losing a single pound. I work more and pray more; physical stamina and mental alertness improve. I check my blood, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride before the commencement of Ramadân and at its end. I note marked improvement at the end.

7) Dr. Hammudah Abd Al-Ati said: Ramadân is a test and training lesson for our conscious mind and our willpower, our self-respect and moral dignity. Ramadân fasting improves economic skills, teaching us adaptability, patience and forbearance.

8) By emptying the stomach, we relax the whole body, which of course helps to clear the mind and invigorates the soul. Abstaining from eating when one is hungry is not easy, but practising it frees the mind and aids in developing concentration and wisdom, by providing time to focus on spiritual matters.

9) Fasting gives the digestive system a rest and makes the body feel lighter. The energy usually consumed in digestion and good metabolism will be directed towards body detoxification, tissue repair and system healing.

Fasting gives a chance for the stomach and intestines to regenerate their mucous cell lining, as digestive secretions are reduced during the day. Fasting boosts the detoxification powers of the hepatic liver cells, cleans the kidneys and colon, and purifies the blood. It also helps overcome obesity, aids in ridding the body of any excess water, and clears the blood from extra fats, which in turn frees the tissues from stored fat-soluble toxins such as pesticides or drug metabolites.

10) Leon Chaitow recommended fasting in his book Natural Alternatives to Antibiotics as an effective way to supercharge the immune system. He states that fasting boosts the activity of the essential parts of the body’s natural defence mechanisms. During fasting the ability of the lymphocytes and other blood cells to encounter any bacterial attack is greatly improved, and since the level of free radicals in the body is reduced by reducing food intake, the activity of antioxidants is retained for better cell protection.

11) Dr. Hamed Muhammad said explaining the natural changes which occur in the body to accommodate the daily fasting in Ramadân : These changes include reduction in the activity of the thyroxin hormone, thus the energy needed by the fasting Muslim to perform his or her daily functions is reduced, making him or her less susceptible to fatigue. Additionally, the blood sugar levels has been found to remain constant during the fasting hours and insulin secretion is kept under control, which is crucial to keeping the brain supplied with glucose for mental concentration and optimal brain performance.

12) Sami Mosuli said whilst explaining the role of autosuggestion in reducing the fasting Muslim from thirst and hunger: This autosuggestion can be even more powerful than the neurotransmitter messages sent by the hypothalamus in the brain to the stomach for it to feel hunger and start asking for food. Instead, the body refers to its stored glycogen and fat deposits for energy supply.

(Abridged & Paraphrased from Fast According To The Qur’ân & Sunnah, Professor Muhammad Zulfiqar. Pg 242-249)

13) Studies reported that total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and blood glucose have been improved after Ramadân compared to before Ramadân.

[Mirzaei B, Rahmani-Nia F, Moghadam MG, Ziyaolhagh SJ, Rezaei A. The effect of ramadan fasting on biochemical and performance parameters in collegiate wrestlers. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2012;15:1215–20.]

14) As smoking is forbidden in Islâm & during fasting of Ramadân, studies revealed a significant reduction in second-hand smoke levels in public places.

[Ramahi I, Seidenberg AB, Kennedy RD, Rees VW. Secondhand smoke emission levels in enclosed public places during Ramadan. Eur J Public Health. 2013;23:789–91.]

The Virtues & Rulings Related To The Month Of Sha’bân

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

When is Sha’bân

The month of Sha’bân is the eighth month which follows the sacred month of Rajab.


The deeds are taken up to Allâh in Sha’bân

حَدَّثَنِي أُسَامَةُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، قَالَ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَمْ أَرَكَ تَصُومُ شَهْرًا مِنَ الشُّهُورِ مَا تَصُومُ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏ “‏ ذَلِكَ شَهْرٌ يَغْفُلُ النَّاسُ عَنْهُ بَيْنَ رَجَبٍ وَرَمَضَانَ وَهُوَ شَهْرٌ تُرْفَعُ فِيهِ الأَعْمَالُ إِلَى رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ فَأُحِبُّ أَنْ يُرْفَعَ عَمَلِي وَأَنَا صَائِمٌ ‏”

Usâmah ibn Zayd said:”I said: ‘O Messenger of Allâh, I do not see you fasting any month as much as Sha’bân.’ He said: ‘That is a month to which people do not pay much attention, between Rajab and Ramadân. It is a month in which the deeds are taken up to the Lord of the worlds, and I like that my deeds be taken up when I am fasting.” (Sunan An-Nasa’î 2357. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)


The prophet fasted all/most of the month of Sha’bân

عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ يَصُومُ مِنَ السَّنَةِ شَهْرًا تَامًّا إِلاَّ شَعْبَانَ يَصِلُهُ بِرَمَضَانَ

Umm Salamah narrated that she never saw the Prophet (ﷺ) fasting the whole month except Sha’bân which he combined with Ramadân. (Abû Dawûd 2336. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، قَالَتْ مَا رَأَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَصُومُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ إِلاَّ شَعْبَانَ وَرَمَضَانَ

Umm Salamah narrated: “I did not see the Prophet (ﷺ) fasting two consecutive months except for Sha’bân and Ramadân.” (Jâmi’ At-Tirmidhî 736. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ قَالَتْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَصُومُ حَتَّى نَقُولَ لاَ يُفْطِرُ، وَيُفْطِرُ حَتَّى نَقُولَ لاَ يَصُومُ‏.‏ فَمَا رَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم اسْتَكْمَلَ صِيَامَ شَهْرٍ إِلاَّ رَمَضَانَ، وَمَا رَأَيْتُهُ أَكْثَرَ صِيَامًا مِنْهُ فِي شَعْبَانَ

‘Âishâ narrated that Allâh Messenger (ﷺ) used to fast till one would say that he would never stop fasting, and he would abandon fasting till one would say that he would never fast. I never saw Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) fasting for a whole month except the month of Ramadân, and did not see him fasting in any month more than in the month of Sha’bân. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1969)

نَّ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ حَدَّثَتْهُ قَالَتْ، لَمْ يَكُنِ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَصُومُ شَهْرًا أَكْثَرَ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ، فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ يَصُومُ شَعْبَانَ كُلَّهُ، وَكَانَ يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ خُذُوا مِنَ الْعَمَلِ مَا تُطِيقُونَ، فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَمَلُّ حَتَّى تَمَلُّوا، وَأَحَبُّ الصَّلاَةِ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَا دُووِمَ عَلَيْهِ، وَإِنْ قَلَّتْ ‏”‏ وَكَانَ إِذَا صَلَّى صَلاَةً دَاوَمَ عَلَيْهَا

‘Âishâ narrated: The Prophet (ﷺ) never fasted in any month more than in the month of Sha’bân . He used to say, “Do those deeds which you can do easily, as Allâh will not get tired (of giving rewards) till you get bored and tired (of performing religious deeds).” The most beloved prayer to the Prophet (ﷺ) was the one that was done regularly (throughout the life) even if it were little. And whenever the Prophet (ﷺ) offered a prayer he used to offer it regularly . (Sahîh Bukhârî 1970)


The ruling on fasting the second half of Sha’bân

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ إِذَا بَقِيَ نِصْفٌ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ فَلاَ تَصُومُوا ‏”

Abû Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allâh said: “When a half of Sha’bân remains then do not fast.” (Jâmi’ At-Tirmidhî 738. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

Shaykh Ibn Bâz was asked:

Question: I read in Sahih Al-Jami` Hadith no. 397 verified by Al-Albany and reported by Al-Suyuty no. 398, which he ranked as Sahih (authentic) on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: When the first half of Sha`ban is over, do not fast until the advent of Ramadan. There is also another Hadith reported by Al-Suyuty no. 8757, ranked as Sahih and verified by Al-Albany in Sahih Al-Jami` no. 4638, on the authority of ‘A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that she said: The most beloved of months for him (peace be upon him) to fast in was Sha`ban, which he used to join with fasting in Ramadan. How can we reconcile the two Hadiths

Answer: In the Name of Allâh, and all praise be to Allâh. The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to fast the whole of Sha’bân except for a few days, as authentically reported from the Hadîth of ‘Âishâ  and Um Salamah. As for the Hadîth that prohibits fasting after the middle of Sha’bân, it is Sahîh, as ranked by the knowledgeable brother, Shaykh Nâsir Al-Dîn Al-Albânî. What is meant is that it is not permissible to start fasting after the first half of Sha’bân is over. If a person fasts most or all of the month, they will be acting upon the Sunnah (acts, sayings or approvals of the Prophet). May Allah grant us success. (Majmû al-Fatâwâ 15, page 385)

Muhammad As-San’ânî: “One can fast compensatory fast or other obligatory fast. However, voluntary fasting is prohibited lest one should be subjected to exhaustion and weakness which may result the Ramadân obligatory fasting difficult for him.” (Subul As-Salâm 546)


The middle of Sha’bân

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ said :

There is no authentic Hadîth stating that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to observe Sawm on a certain day or days in Sha’bân. There are only some Da‘îf (weak) Hadîths about spending the eve of mid-Sha’bân in Salah and the day in Sawm, including the one reported by Ibn Mâjah in his Sunan (Hadîth compilations classified by jurisprudential themes) in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
When it is the eve of mid-Sha’bân, you should spend its night in Salâh and its day in Sawm, for Allâh (Exalted be He) descends on it at sunset to the nearest heaven and says, ‘Is there anyone who seeks forgiveness that I may forgive them? Is there anyone who asks for sustenance that I may provide for them? Is there any afflicted person that I may relieve them?’ and so on until the break of dawn.
 Ibn Hibbân ranked some Hadîths reported about the merit of spending the eve of mid-Sha’bân in Salâh as Sahîh, including the one reported in his Sahîh on the authority of ‘Âishah who said: I did not find the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) during one night, so I went out to search for him. I found him in Al-Baqi‘. He (peace be upon him) said (to her), ‘Did you fear being wronged by Allâh and His Messenger?’ She said, ‘O Messenger of Allâh, I thought that you had gone to one of your wives.’ He (peace be upon him) said, ‘Verily, Allâh (Glorified and Exalted be He) descends on the eve of mid-Sha‘ban to the nearest heaven, and He forgives a number of people that exceeds the number of the sheep owned by Kalb (a tribe known for their sheep).’ 
Yet Al-Bukhârî and other scholars ranked this Hadîth as Da‘îf. Most scholars say that the Hadîths narrated about the merit of the eve of mid-Sha’bân and of Sawm on this day are Da‘îf. Ibn Hibbân is known among the Hadîth scholars for not being strict in ranking Hadîths as Sahîh.

To sum up, according to the expert scholars who verify Hadîth, there is no Sahîh Hadiîth among those narrated about the merit of spending the eve of mid-Sha’bân in Salâh and the day in Sawm. Thus, they negated the merit of spending the night in Salâh and the day in Sawm and considered this a Bid‘ah (innovation in religion). But a group of worshippers glorified this night, relying on the Da‘îf Hadîths narrated about it, and people followed them as they thought highly of them. Some of them, out of excessive glorification paid to the eve of mid-Sha’bân, even said that it is the blessed night on which the Qur’ân was sent down and every matter of ordainment is decreed.

May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions.

(Group 1, volume 3, part 3 (Aqîdah), page 63)


Fasting the day of doubt

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ لاَ تَقَدَّمُوا صَوْمَ رَمَضَانَ بِيَوْمٍ وَلاَ يَوْمَيْنِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ صَوْمًا يَصُومُهُ رَجُلٌ فَلْيَصُمْ ذَلِكَ الصَّوْمَ ‏”

Narrated Abû Hurairah:The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) as saying: Do not fast one day or two days just before Ramadân, except in the case of a man who has been in the habit of observing the particular fast, for he may fast on that day. (Abû Dawûd 2335. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

Imâm An-Nawawî said: If a person observes a voluntary fast on this day, and he has a reason for doing so, such as having the habit of fasting every day, or of fasting alternate days, or fasting on particular days such as Mondays, and it happens to coincide with that day, then it is permissible for him to fast on this day; there is no difference of opinion among our companions regarding that. The evidence for that is the hadîth of Abû Hurayrah [mentioned above]. If he does not have a reason, then it is harâm for him to fast on this day. (Al-Majmû’ 6/400)


Fasting 1 or 2 days before Ramadân

عَنْ صِلَةَ بْنِ زُفَرَ، قَالَ كُنَّا عِنْدَ عَمَّارِ بْنِ يَاسِرٍ فَأُتِيَ بِشَاةٍ مَصْلِيَّةٍ فَقَالَ كُلُوا ‏.‏ فَتَنَحَّى بَعْضُ الْقَوْمِ فَقَالَ إِنِّي صَائِمٌ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عَمَّارٌ مَنْ صَامَ الْيَوْمَ الَّذِي يَشُكُّ فِيهِ النَّاسُ فَقَدْ عَصَى أَبَا الْقَاسِمِ صلى الله عليه وسلم

Silah bin Zufar said:”We were with ‘Ammâr ibn Yâsir when a roasted sheep was brought and he said: ‘Eat.’ Someone among the people said: ‘I am fasting.’ So ‘Ammâr said: ‘Whoever fasts on a day in which there is doubt, then he has disobeyed Abul-Qâsim (the Prophet) .” (At-Tirmidhî 686. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ said:

Anyone who fasts on the 30th of Sha’bân, without the confirmed sighting of the new moon of Ramadân prescribed by Shari‘ah (Islamic law), and their Sawm coincides with the first day of Ramadân, it will not count for them as validly sufficient Sawm, as they did not base their Sawm on the Islamic basis and also because that is the Day of Doubt. The authentic Sunnah gave evidence for the prohibition of fasting on that day, so anyone who did this must make up for that day. Ibn Qudâmah (may Allah be merciful to him) said in this regard, “There is a third report from Ahmad that states that it must not be fasted and it does not compensate for Ramadân, if fasted.” This is the view held by the majority of the scholars, such as Abû Hanîfah, Mâlik, Al-Shafî’, and those who followed their opinions. Abû Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) said,  “Fast when you see it (the new moon of Ramadan) and stop fasting when you see it (the new moon of Shawwâl); but if the clouds obstruct your sighting of the new moon, complete the month of Sha‘bân as thirty days.” (Related by Al-Bukhâri). It is related on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) said,  “Fast when you see it (the new moon of Ramadân) and stop fasting when you see it (the new moon of Shawwâl); but if the clouds obstruct your sighting of the new moon, then calculate it thirty days.”  (Related by Muslim) It is authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade fasting on the Day of Doubt (agreed upon by Al-Bukhâri and Muslim), and this is the Day of Doubt.

The basis of the ruling is that it is still the month of Sha’bân, and moving on to the next month cannot be based on doubt.” End of quoting from “Al-Mughnî”.

May Allâh grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.

(The Permanent Committee, group 1, volume 10)

Be Grateful To Allâh & Always Ask Allâh for Steadfastness, Even If You’re Upon The Truth

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Imâm Al-Hasan ibn ‘Alî al-Barbahârî (d.329 AH) said:

الحمد لله الذي هدانا للإسلام، ومنّ علينا به، وأخرجنا في خير أمّة، فنسأله التوفيق لما يحبّ ويرضى، والحفظ ممّا يكره ويسخط

All praise is due to Allâh who has guided us to Islâm, bestowed favour upon us with it and raised us in the best nation. We ask Allâh to make us live in consonance with what He loves and is pleased with, and we seek protection in Him from what He dislikes and is displeased with. ” (Sharh As-Sunnah)


Shaykh Sâlih Al-Fawzân said in explanation:

Islâm is the greatest blessing. Allâh says:

ٱلۡيَوۡمَ أَكۡمَلۡتُ لَكُمۡ دِينَكُمۡ وَأَتۡمَمۡتُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ نِعۡمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ ٱلۡإِسۡلَٰمَ دِينٗاۚ… ٣

This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islâm as your religion. ( Sûrah al-Mâ’idah 5:3)

قُلۡ بِفَضۡلِ ٱللَّهِ وَبِرَحۡمَتِهِۦ فَبِذَٰلِكَ فَلۡيَفۡرَحُواْ هُوَ خَيۡرٞ مِّمَّا يَجۡمَعُونَ ٨٥


Say: “In the Bounty of Allâh, and in His Mercy (i.e. Islâm and the Qurân); -therein let them rejoice.” That is better than what (the wealth) they amass. (Sûrah Yûnus 10:58)

So they should rejoice over Islâm and the Qurân. This contains acknowledgement from you that your being guided to Islâm is a favour from Allâh, for guiding you to it and making you steadfast upon it. This is a bounty from Allâh. It is neither by your might nor power – rather it is success granted to you by Allâh.

The people of Paradise will say:

وَنَزَعۡنَا مَا فِي صُدُورِهِم مِّنۡ غِلّٖ تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهِمُ ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُۖ وَقَالُواْ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِي هَدَىٰنَا لِهَٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لِنَهۡتَدِيَ لَوۡلَآ أَنۡ هَدَىٰنَا ٱللَّهُۖ لَقَدۡ جَآءَتۡ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِٱلۡحَقِّۖ وَنُودُوٓاْ أَن تِلۡكُمُ ٱلۡجَنَّةُ أُورِثۡتُمُوهَا بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ ٣٤

And We shall remove from their breasts any (mutual) hatred or sense of injury (which they had, if at all, in the life of this world); rivers flowing under them, and they will say: “All the praises and thanks be to Allâh, Who has guided us to this, never could we have found guidance, were it not that Allâh had guided us! Indeed, the Messengers of our Lord did come with the truth.” And it will be cried out to them: “This is the Paradise which you have inherited for what you used to do. (Sûrah al-A’râf 7:43)

A person should ask Allâh for steadfastness, even if he knows the truth, acts according to it and believes in it. He should not feel secure from deviation and temptation, as trials can afflict him and as a result, he may stray from the path of Allâh. Consequently the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم would supplicate to Allâh saying:

يا مُقَلِّبَ القلوبِ ثَبِّتْ قلبي على دينِكَ

Yâ muqallibal-Qulûb thabbit qalbî ‘alâ dînik [Oh Turner of the hearts, make my heart firm upon your religion] (Sahîh al-Jâmi’ 7987)

Prophet Ibrâhîm, Allâhs khalîl (close friend) said in his supplication:

وَإِذۡ قَالَ إِبۡرَٰهِيمُ رَبِّ ٱجۡعَلۡ هَٰذَا ٱلۡبَلَدَ ءَامِنٗا وَٱجۡنُبۡنِي وَبَنِيَّ أَن نَّعۡبُدَ ٱلۡأَصۡنَامَ ٥٣

And (remember) when Ibrâhîm (Abraham) said: “O my Lord! Make this city (Makkah) one of peace and security, and keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols. (Sûrah Ibrâhîm 14:35)

He feared for himself. Similarly, whenever the Îmân (faith) of a person becomes strong, he fears for himself and does not feel safe from trial or consider himself to be pure. Rather, he asks Allâh for steadfastness and a good end, always and forever fearing an evil end, temptation, deviation, misguidance and callers to evil.”

(Paraphrased and abridged. Explanation of Sharh As-Sunnah p. 31-33)


(Note – A similar & beautiful supplication can be found in Sûrah Al Imrân 3:8 –

رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغۡ قُلُوبَنَا بَعۡدَ إِذۡ هَدَيۡتَنَا وَهَبۡ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحۡمَةًۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلۡوَهَّابُ ٨

“Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You are Al-Wahhâb [The Bestower].”

Transliteration: Rabbanâ lâ tuzigh qulûbanâ ba’da idh hadaytanâ wa-hab lanâ mil-ladunka rahmatan innaka anta-l-Wahhâb

The Names of Allâh: 1) Al-Hayy & 2) Al-Qayyûm

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Al-Hayy (The Ever-Living)
Al-Qayyûm (The Self-Subsisting)

Al-Hayy & Al-Qayyûm Mentioned In The Qur’ân

ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡحَيُّ ٱلۡقَيُّومُۚ… ٥٥٢

Allâh! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), The Ever-Living, The Self-Subsisting. (Sûrah al-Baqarah 2:255)

ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡحَيُّ ٱلۡقَيُّومُ ٢

Allâh! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), The Ever-Living, The Self-Subsisting. (Sûrah Al-Imrân 3:2)

وَعَنَتِ ٱلۡوُجُوهُ لِلۡحَيِّ ٱلۡقَيُّومِۖ وَقَدۡ خَابَ مَنۡ حَمَلَ ظُلۡمٗا ١١١

And (all) faces shall be humbled before (Allâh), The Ever-Living, The Self-Subsisting. And he who carried (a burden of) wrongdoing (i.e. he who disbelieved in Allâh, ascribed partners to Him, and did deeds of His disobedience), became indeed a complete failure (on that Day). (Sûrah At-Tâha 20:111)

وَتَوَكَّلۡ عَلَى ٱلۡحَيِّ ٱلَّذِي لَا يَمُوتُ وَسَبِّحۡ بِحَمۡدِهِۦۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِۦ بِذُنُوبِ عِبَادِهِۦ خَبِيرًا ٨٥

And put your trust in The Ever Living One Who dies not, and glorify His Praises, and Sufficient is He as the All-Knower of the sins of His slaves. (Sûrah al-Furqân 25:58)

هُوَ ٱلۡحَيُّ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَٱدۡعُوهُ مُخۡلِصِينَ لَهُ ٱلدِّينَۗ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ ٥٦

He is The Ever-Living, La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), so invoke Him making your worship pure for Him Alone. All the praises and thanks be to Allâh, The Lord of the ‘Âlamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists). (Sûrah Ghâfir 40:65)


The Explanation Of Al-Hayy & Al-Qayyûm

Imâm As-Sa’dî said: “Al-Hayy is The One whos existence is the most complete and the most perfect form of existence: characterised by all the manifestation and qualities of life including Hearing, Sight, Doing, Power, Eminence, Eternity, and unquestionable authority.

Al-Qayyûm means that Allâh has always been Self-Existing and established in His own right, and He is independent of His creation. Since He is The One who creates existence, therefore all others depend on Him to come into existence and to establish and prosper in their own existence. Allâh is The One who runs the affairs of His creation. All matters of body, soul and heart are in Allâh’s Hands.” (Abridged and paraphrased from Taysîr al-Karîm al-Rahmân 3:1-2)


Ibn Abî al-‘Izz said: “Al-Hayy & Al-Qayyûm are mentioned together three times in the Qur’an. They are among the greatest names of Allâh. All of the beautiful names revolve around these two names, and their meanings return back to these two. Al-Qayyûm being joined with Al-Hayy necessitates that Allâh is qualified with all the perfect attributes. This also implies that He has those attributes from eternity and will have them forever without undergoing any diminution or reduction.

Al-Hayy signifies eternity and everlastingness.

Al-Qayyûm implies Allâh’s Self-sufficiency, freedom from all wants and His perfect power. He sustains Himself and others and His Sustaining is Perfect. Everything depends on Him and He depends on none.

He is there eternally, never fails to exist, never loses sight of things for a moment, never suffers loss or want, nor does He die or perish. He is The Ever-Living, The Self-Subsisting, Who will always be and will always have the most perfect attributes.” (Abridged and paraphrased from Sharh al-‘Aqîdah at-Tahâwîyyah p.46)


The Obligation To Follow The Way Of The Salaf al-Sâlih (The Pious Predecessors)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

واتِّبَاعُ السَّلَفِ الصَّالِحِ وَاقْتِفَاءُ آثَارِهِمْ، وَالاسْتِغْفَارُ لَهُمْ

And [required of the Muslims is] strict following of Salaf al-Sâlih and adhering to the knowledge and guidance which they left behind, and seeking forgiveness for them. (‘Abû Muhammad Ibn Abî Zaid al-Qayrawânî in his risâlah|d.389AH)


The meaning of the term ‘salaf’

Shaykh Muhammad al-Uthaymîn: The term salaf means those who preceeded (al-muqadimûn); so anyone who precedes another is a salaf for him. However when the term salaf is used in the general sense, then what is intended is the three best generations: the companions, their students and their students after them. They are the Salaf as-Sâlih (the Pious Predecessors). (Fatâwâ Nûr ‘ala-Darb)


The term ‘salaf’ is nothing new

It’s usage in the Qur’ân:

﴿وَلاَ تَنكِحُواْ مَا نَكَحَ ءَابَاؤُكُمْ مِّنَ النِّسَآءِ إِلاَّ مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَـحِشَةً وَمَقْتاً وَسَآءَ سَبِيلاً ﴾

And marry not women whom your fathers married, except what has already passed (Salaf); indeed it was shameful and Maqtan, and an evil way. (Sûrah an-Nisâ’ 4:22)

﴿فَجَعَلْنَـهُمْ سَلَفاً وَمَثَلاً لِّلاٌّخِرِينَ ﴾

 We made them a precedent (Salaf), and an example to later generations. (Sûrah az-Zukhruf 43:56)

It’s usage in the Sunnah:

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said to his daughter Fâtimah:

فَاتَّقِي اللَّهَ وَاصْبِرِي، فَإِنِّي نِعْمَ السَّلَفُ أَنَا لَكَ

So, be afraid of Allâh, and be patient, for I am the best predecessor (Salaf) for you. (Sahîh Bukhârî 6285)


Allâh, The All-Knowing placed his message with the best people & best supporters

Allâh says:

﴿اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ﴾

Allâh knows best with whom to entrust His Message. (Sûrah al-An’am 6:124)

Imâm Ibn Kathîr said: He knows best with whom His Message should be given and which of His creatures are suitable for it. (Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr 6:124)

‘Abdullâh Ibn Mas’ud said:

إنَّ اللَّهَ نَظرَ في قُلوبِ العِبادِ فوَجدَ قَلبَ محمَّدٍ صلَّى اللَّهُ عليهِ وسلَّمَ خَيرَ قُلوبِ العبادِ فاصطَفاهُ لنَفسِهِ وابتَعثَهُ برسالتِهِ ثمَّ نَظرَ في قُلوبِ العِبادِ بعدَ قلبِهِ فَوجدَ قُلوبَ أصحابِهِ خيرَ قلوبِ العِبادِ بعدَهُ فجَعلَهُم وزراءَ نبيِّهِ يقاتِلونَ علَى دينِهِ فما رآهُ المسلِمونَ حَسنًا فَهوَ عندَ اللَّهِ حَسَنٌ وما رآهُ المسلِمونَ سيِّئًا فَهُوَ عندَ اللَّهِ سَيِّءٌ

Allâh looked into the hearts of His slaves, and He saw that the heart of Muhammad (ﷺ) was the best of people’s hearts, so He chose him for Himself and sent him with His message. Then He looked into the hearts of His slaves after the heart of Muhammad, and He found that the hearts of his companions were the best of people’s hearts, so He made them the supporters of His Prophet, who fought for His religion. So whatever the Muslims think is good, is good before Allâh , and whatever they think is bad, is bad before Allâh.(Musnad Imâm Ahmad, 3600. Declared Hasan by Ibn Hajr)


– The Salaf al-Sâlih are the best generations [in virtue]

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ سَأَلَ رَجُلٌ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَىُّ النَّاسِ خَيْرٌ قَالَ ‏ “‏ الْقَرْنُ الَّذِي أَنَا فِيهِ ثُمَّ الثَّانِي ثُمَّ الثَّالِثُ

Â’ishah reported that a person asked Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) as to who amongst the people were the best. He said: Of the generation to which I belong, then of the second generation (generation adjacent to my generation), then of the third generation (generation adjacent to the second generation). (Sahîh Muslim 2536)


The saved individual is the one who follows the Prophet & his companions

Allâh says:

﴿وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَى وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّى وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَآءَتْ مَصِيراً ﴾

And whoever opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him, and follows other than the believers’ way, We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell – what an evil destination. (Sûrah Nisâ’ 4:115)

Shaykh Ahmad al-Najmî said: Allâh, Exalted be He, referred to the Companions of the Prophet as the believers. (The word ‘believers’) also refers to those who succeeded the companions who are upon the same path as them. (Sharh al-Risâlah ibn Abî Zayd al-Qayrawânî p.166 & p.179)

وَإِنَّ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ تَفَرَّقَتْ عَلَى ثِنْتَيْنِ وَسَبْعِينَ مِلَّةً وَتَفْتَرِقُ أُمَّتِي عَلَى ثَلاَثٍ وَسَبْعِينَ مِلَّةً كُلُّهُمْ فِي النَّارِ إِلاَّ مِلَّةً وَاحِدَةً قَالُوا وَمَنْ هِيَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ مَا أَنَا عَلَيْهِ وَأَصْحَابِي ‏

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Indeed the children of Isra’îl split into seventy-two sects, and my Ummah will split into seventy-three sects. All of them are in the Fire Except one sect.” He said: “And which is it O Messenger of Allâh?” He said: “[The ones who follow] what I & my companions are upon. (At-Tirmidhî 2641. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)


We should seek forgiveness for them

Allâh says:

﴿رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلإِخْوَنِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالإَيمَـنِ وَلاَ تَجْعَلْ فِى قُلُوبِنَا غِلاًّ لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ﴾

Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed The Kind, The Most-Merciful. (Sûrah al-Hashr 59:10)


We should speak only good of them & make excuses for them

اَ تَسُبُّوا أَصْحَابِي لاَ تَسُبُّوا أَصْحَابِي فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَوْ أَنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ أَنْفَقَ مِثْلَ أُحُدٍ ذَهَبًا مَا أَدْرَكَ مُدَّ أَحَدِهِمْ وَلاَ نَصِيفَ

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Do not revile my Companions, do not revile my Companions. By Him in Whose Hand is my life, if one amongst you would have spent as much gold as (Mount) Uhud it would not amount to as much as one Mudd on behalf of one of them or half of it. (Sahîh Muslim 2540)