O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies (i.e. disbelievers and polytheists, etc.) as friends, showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth (i.e. Islamic Monotheism, this Qurân, and Muhammad), and have driven out the Messenger (Muhammad) and yourselves (from your homeland) because you believe in Allâh your Lord! If you have come forth to strive in My Cause and to seek My Good Pleasure, (then take not these disbelievers and polytheists, etc., as your friends). You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does that, then indeed he has gone (far) astray, (away) from the Straight Path. (Sûrah al- Mumtahinah 60:1)
You will not find any people who believe in Allâh and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger, even their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kindred (people). For such He has written Îmân (Faith) in their hearts, and strengthened them with Rûh (proofs, light and true guidance) from Himself. And We will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow, to dwell therein (forever). Allâh is pleased with them, and they with Him. They are the Party of Allâh. Verily, it is the Party of Allâh that will be the successful. (Sûrah al-Mujâdilah 58:22)
It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allâh’s Forgiveness for the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh) even though they be of kin, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire (because they died in a state of disbelief). (Sûrah at-Tawbah 9:113)
Sulaymân ibn Buraydah said that his father said, “When the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم came to Makkah, he went to a grave, sat next to it, started talking and then stood up with tears in his eyes. We said, `O Allâh’s Messenger! We saw what you did.’ He said,
“I asked my Lord for permission to visit the grave of my mother and He gave me permission. I asked for His permission to invoke Him for forgiveness for her, but He did not give me permission.” We never saw him more tearful than on that day.”’
Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbâs about Allâh’s statement,
(It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allâhs forgiveness for the Mushrikîn) “The Prophet wanted to invoke Allâh for forgiveness for his mother, but Allâh did not allow him. (Sahîh Muslim 976, Ibn Jarîr and others)
Shaykh Salîh al-Fawzân said:
It is obligatory to hate the disbelievers and have animosity towards them, and to not ally oneself with them, even if they were the closest of a Muslim’s relatives.
From the things that result from determining someone to be a disbeliever is that when a polytheist or a disbeliever dies, then a Muslim may not take care of his funeral prayer, nor is he to be buried in a Muslim graveyard. The Muslims do not take care of a disbelievers funeral, nor do they wash his body, shroud him, transport his body, announce his death, or attend his burial. Allâh says:
And never pray (funeral prayer) over any of them (disbelievers) who dies, nor stand over their grave (in prayer). Certainly they disbelieved in Allâh and His Messenger, and died while they were Fâsiqûn (rebellious, – disobedient to Allâh and His Messenger). (Sûrah at-Tawbah 9:84)
(Abridged – Things that nullify one’s Islâm, 3rd edition, TROID pubs)
Shaykh Ibn al-Uthaymîn said (in explanation of the verse in Sûrah at-Tawbah 9:113) :
It is prohibited for the Muslim to seek forgiveness for the Mushrikûn [polytheists] even if they are near relatives. And the danger in the expressions of some of the people to some kingpins of disbelief when they die such that “he is blessed”. Such is prohibited because it is to contradict Allâh.
Likewise, it is forbidden to show grief and sorrow upon their death by way of condolence or things like that because, the believers should be happy for their death.
Az-Zubayr ibn Bakkâr said: “During the Pre-Islamic Days of Ignorance, Khadîjah was known as at-Tahirah (the pure one); her mother was Fâtimah bint Zâ’idah al-‘Amiriyah.” Khâdijah was married to the Messenger ﷺ by her uncle ‘Amr ibn Asad. She died three years before the hijrah (migration). (The illustrious women of Islâm pg. 7)
Ibn Ishâq says: Khadîjah bint Khuwaylid believed in him, and gave trust to what he [the prophet] brought from Allâh. She supported him, and was the first person to believe in Allâh and His Messenger, and what was received from him (Sîrah of Ibn Hishâm 118)
Narrated ‘Âisha (the mother of the faithful believers): The commencement of the Divine Inspiration to Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright daylight, and then the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him. He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hirâ where he used to worship (Allâh alone) continuously for many days before his desire to see his family. He used to take with him the journey food for the stay and then come back to (his wife) Khadîjah to take his food likewise again till suddenly the Truth descended upon him while he was in the cave of Hirâ. The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet (ﷺ) replied, “I do not know how to read.” The Prophet (ﷺ) added, “The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, ‘I do not know how to read.’ Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, ‘I do not know how to read (or what shall I read)?’ Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said, ‘Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists), created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous.” (96.1, 96.2, 96.3) Then Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) returned with the Inspiration and with his heart beating severely. Then he went to Khadîjah bint Khuwaylid and said, “Cover me! Cover me!” They covered him till his fear was over and after that he told her everything that had happened and said, “I fear that something may happen to me.” Khadîjah replied, “Never! By Allâh, Allâh will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones.” Khadîjah then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqah ibn Nawfal ibn Asad ibn ‘Abdul ‘Uzza, who, during the pre-Islamic Period became a Christian and used to write the writing with Hebrew letters. He would write from the Gospel in Hebrew as much as Allâh wished him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. Khadîjah said to Waraqa, “Listen to the story of your nephew, O my cousin!” Waraqa asked, “O my nephew! What have you seen?” Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) described whatever he had seen. Waraqa said, “This is the same one who keeps the secrets (angel Gabriel) whom Allâh had sent to Moses. I wish I were young and could live up to the time when your people would turn you out.” Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) asked, “Will they drive me out?” Waraqa replied in the affirmative and said, “Anyone (man) who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should remain alive till the day when you will be turned out then I would support you strongly.” But after a few days Waraqa died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while. (Sahîh Bukhârî 3)
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ أَتَى جِبْرِيلُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَذِهِ خَدِيجَةُ قَدْ أَتَتْ مَعَهَا إِنَاءٌ فِيهِ إِدَامٌ أَوْ طَعَامٌ أَوْ شَرَابٌ، فَإِذَا هِيَ أَتَتْكَ فَاقْرَأْ عَلَيْهَا السَّلاَمَ مِنْ رَبِّهَا وَمِنِّي، وَبَشِّرْهَا بِبَيْتٍ فِي الْجَنَّةِ مِنْ قَصَبٍ، لاَ صَخَبَ فِيهِ وَلاَ نَصَبَ.
Narrated Abû Hurayrah: Jibrîl came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said, “O Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)! This is Khadîjah coming to you with a dish having meat soup or some food or drink. When she reaches you, greet her on behalf of her Lord (i.e. Allâh) and on my behalf, and give her the glad tidings of having a Qasab palace in Paradise wherein there will be neither any noise nor any fatigue (trouble) . ” (Sahîh Bukhârî 3820)
He (ﷺ) also said:
لا تَسبُّوا ورَقةَ فإنِّي رأيتُ لهُ جنَّةً أو جنَّتَينِ
“Do not revile Waraqah, for I saw that he will be in the Garden (Paradise), or will have two gardens.” Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî in As-Sahîhah 405 – according to the conditions of the two shaykhs [al-Bukhârî and Muslim].
‘Alî ibn Abû Tâlib
Imâm al-Maqdisi said: “He is Abul-Hasan ‘Alî ibn Abî Tâlib, the cousin of the Prophet ﷺ. His mother was Fâtimah bint Asad ibn Hâshim ibn ‘Abd Manâf. ‘Alî married Fâtimah – the daughter of the Prophet ﷺ, she gave birth to Hasan, Husayn and Muhassin. He died in 40AH.” (The Prophet & His Ten Companions)
Imâm at-Tirmidhî said: “‘Alî embraced Islâm at 8 years of age.” (Sunan At-Tirmidhî 3734)
كنتُ امرأً تاجرًا فقدمتُ الحجَّ فأتيتُ العباسَ بنَ عبدِ المطلبِ لأبتاعَ منهُ بعضَ التجارةِ وكان امرأً تاجرًا فواللهِ إني لعندَهُ بمِنًى إذ خرج رجلٌ من خِبَاءٍ قريبٍ منهُ فنظر إلى الشمسِ فلمَّا رآها مالت يعني قام يُصلِّي قال : ثم خرجت امرأةٌ من ذلك الخِبَاءِ الذي خرج منهُ ذلك الرجلُ فقامت خلفَهُ تُصلِّي ثم خرج غلامٌ حين راهقَ الحُلُمَ من ذلك الخِبَاءَ فقام معَهُ يُصلِّي قال : فقلتُ للعباسِ : من هذا يا عباسُ قال : هذا محمدُ بنُ عبدِ اللهِ بنُ عبدِ المطلبِ ابنُ أخي قال : فقلتُ : من هذه المرأةُ قال : هذه امرأتُهُ خديجةُ ابنةُ خويلدٍ قال : قلتُ : من هذا الفتى قال : هذا عليُّ بنُ أبي طالبٍ ابنُ عمِّهِ قال : فقلتُ : فما هذا الذي يصنعُ قال : يُصلِّي وهو يزعمُ أنَّهُ نبيٌّ ولم يتَّبِعْهُ على أمرِهِ إلا امرأتُهُ وابنُ عمِّهِ هذا الفتى وهو يزعمُ أنَّهُ سيُفتحُ عليهِ كنوزُ كسرى وقيصرَ قال : فكان عفيفًا وهو ابنُ عمِّ الأشعثِ بنِ قيسٍ يقولُ : وأسلمَ بعد ذلك فحسنَ إسلامُهُ لو كان اللهُ رزقني الإسلامَ يومئذٍ فأكونُ ثالثًا مع عليِّ بنِ أبي طالبٍ رضيَ اللهُ عنهُ
It was narrated from Ismâ’îl ibn Iyas bin ‘Afîf al-Kindi, from his father, that his grandfather said: I was a merchant; I came for Hajj and came to al-‘Abbâs ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib to buy some goods from him, as he was also a merchant. By Allâh, I was with him in Minna when a man came out of a tent nearby and looked at the sun. When he saw that it had passed its zenith, he stood up and prayed. Then a woman came out of that tent from which that man had come out, and she stood behind him to pray. Then a boy on the brink of adolescence came out of that tent and stood with him to pray. I said to al-‘Abbâs: Who is this, O ‘Abbâs? He said: This is Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullâh bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib, the son of my brother. I said: Who is this woman? He said: She is his wife, Khadîjah bint Khuwailid. I said: Who is this youth? He said: He is ‘Alî ibn Abû Tâlib, the son of his paternal uncle. I said: What are they doing? He said: He is praying, and he claims that he is a Prophet, but no one follows him except his wife and this cousin of his, that young man. And he claims that the treasure of Chosroes and Caesar will be granted to him. He said: ‘Afîf – who was the paternal cousin of al-Ash’ath ibn Qais – became Muslim after that and was a good Muslim, and he used to say: If Allâh had guided me to become Muslim on that day, I would have been the third with ‘Alî ibn Abû Tâlib. (Musnad Imâm Ahmad 1787, Ibn Jarîr At-Tarîkh. Declared Sahîh by Ahmad Shâkir).
أنا أوّل من صلّى مع رسول الله ﷺ
Habbah al-‘Urani said: I heard Alî say: “I am the first one to pray with the Messenger of Allâh ﷺ (Musnad Imâm Ahmad 1191, 1192. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî).
Abû Bakr Al-Siddîq
Imâm As-Suyûti said: “He is ‘Abdullâh ibn Abî Quhâfah ‘Uthmân ibn ‘Âmir ibn ‘Amr ibn Ka’b ibn Sa’d ibn Taym ibn Murrah… whose genealogy connects to that of the Messenger of Allâh ﷺ in Murrah. His nickname was ‘Atîq and he was given that name on account of his having been set free from the Hellfire. The ummah agree that on his being named as-Siddîq because he hastened to affirm the Messenger of Allâh ﷺ and adhered steadfastly to truthfulness. He was born 2 years and some months after the birth of the Prophet ﷺ and he died on the night of Tuesday in Jumâda al-âkhirah in 13 AH, when he was 63 years old.” (Târikh al-Khulafâh)
Narrated by Abû Ad-Dardâ: While I was sitting with the Prophet, Abû Bakr came, lifting up one corner of his garment uncovering his knee. The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Your companion has had a quarrel.” Abû Bakr greeted (the Prophet (ﷺ) ) and said, “O Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ)! There was something (i.e. quarrel) between me and the Son of Al-Khattâb. I talked to him harshly and then regretted that, and requested him to forgive me, but he refused. This is why I have come to you.” The Prophet (ﷺ) said thrice, “O Abû Bakr! May Allâh forgive you.” In the meanwhile, `Umar regretted (his refusal of Abû Bakr’s excuse) and went to Abû Bakr’s house and asked if Abû Bakr was there. They replied in the negative. So he came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and greeted him, but signs of displeasure appeared on the face of the Prophet (ﷺ) till Abû Bakr pitied (`Umar), so he knelt and said twice, “O Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ)! By Allâh! I was more unjust to him (than he to me).” The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Allâh sent me (as a Prophet) to you (people) but you said (to me), ‘You are telling a lie,’ while Abû Bakr said, ‘He has said the truth,’ and consoled me with himself and his wealth.” He then said twice, “Won’t you then give up harming my companion?” After that nobody harmed Abû Bakr (Sahîh Bukhârî 3661).
Shaykh Albânî said: ‘This is a direct text which confirms Abû Bakr was the first to accept Islam (Sahî As-Sîrah).
Narrated by Abû Sa’îd Al-Khudrî: Abû Bakr said: “Am I not the most deserving of it among the people, am I not the first to become Muslim, am I not the person of such and such, am I not the person of such and such.” (At-Tirmidhî 3667. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
Narrated from Abû Hamzah (Talhah ibn Yazîd), a man from the Ansar: that Zaid ibn Al-Arqam said: “The first to accept Islâm was ‘Alî.” ‘Amr bin Murrah said: “So I mentioned that to Ibrahîm An-Nakhâ’i, so he rejected that and said: ‘The first to accept Islâm was Abû Bakr As-Siddîq.'” (At-Tirmidhî 3735. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
Shaykh Al-Albânî said: ”The first boy to accept Islâm is `Alî Ibn Abû Ṭâlib. The first one to accept Islâm from the (matured) free men was Abû Bakr al-Siddîq. His conversion was more beneficial than that of all those who were mentioned earlier, because he was one of the honored leaders and respected chiefs of Quraish and had quite some wealth. He was an active caller to Islâm, and was beloved, and used to spend his wealth in the cause of Allâh, and out of obedience to Allâh and His Messenger.” (Sahîh As-Sîrah)
‘Ammâr and his mother Sumayyah, Suhaib, Bilâl and Miqdâd
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، قَالَ كَانَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ أَظْهَرَ إِسْلاَمَهُ سَبْعَةٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعَمَّارٌ وَأُمُّهُ سُمَيَّةُ وَصُهَيْبٌ وَبِلاَلٌ وَالْمِقْدَادُ فَأَمَّا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ فَمَنَعَهُ اللَّهُ بِعَمِّهِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَأَمَّا أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَمَنَعَهُ اللَّهُ بِقَوْمِهِ وَأَمَّا سَائِرُهُمْ فَأَخَذَهُمُ الْمُشْرِكُونَ وَأَلْبَسُوهُمْ أَدْرَاعَ الْحَدِيدِ وَصَهَرُوهُمْ فِي الشَّمْسِ فَمَا مِنْهُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ وَقَدْ وَاتَاهُمْ عَلَى مَا أَرَادُوا إِلاَّ بِلاَلاً فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ هَانَتْ عَلَيْهِ نَفْسُهُ فِي اللَّهِ وَهَانَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ فَأَخَذُوهُ فَأَعْطَوْهُ الْوِلْدَانَ فَجَعَلُوا يَطُوفُونَ بِهِ فِي شِعَابِ مَكَّةَ وَهُوَ يَقُولُ أَحَدٌ أَحَدٌ
It was narrated that ‘Abdullâh ibn Mas’ûd said: “The first people to declare their Islâm publicly were seven: The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) , Abû Bakr, ‘Ammâr and his mother Sumayyah, Suhaib, Bilâl and Miqdâd. With regard to the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) , Allâh protected him through his paternal uncle Abû Tâlib. With regard to Abû Bakr, Allâh protected him through his people. As for the rest, the idolators seized them and made them wear coats of chain-mail and exposed them to the intense heat of the sun. There was none of them who did not do what they wanted them to do, except for Bilâl. He did not care what happened to him for the sake of Allâh, and his people did not care what happened to him. Then they gave him to the children who took him around in the streets of Makkah while he was saying, ‘Ahad, Ahad (One, One).'” (Sunân Ibn Mâjah 150. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
‘Amr ibn ‘Abasa Sulami
‘Amr ibn ‘Abasa Sulami reported: In the state of the Ignorance (before embracing Islâm), I used to think that the people were in error and they were not on anything (which may be called the right path) and worshipped the idols. Meanwhile, I heard of a man in Makkah who was giving news (on the basis of his prophetic knowledge) ; so I sat on my ride and went to him. The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) was at that time hiding as his people had made life hard for him. I adopted a friendly attitude (towards the Makkans and thus managed) to enter Makkah and go to him (the Holy Prophet) and I said to him: Who are you? He said: I am a Prophet (of Allâh). I again said: Who is a Prophet? He said: (I am a Prophet in the sense that) I have been sent by Allâh. I said: What is that which you have been sent with? He said: I have been sent to join ties of relationship (with kindness and affection), to break the Idols, and to proclaim the oneness of Allâh (in a manner that) nothing is to be associated with Him. I said: Who is with you in this (in these beliefs and practices)? He said: A free man and a slave. He (the narrator) said: Abû Bakr and Bilâl were there with him among those who had embraced Islâm by that time. I said: I intend to follow you. He said: During these days you would not be able to do so. Don’t you see the (hard) condition under which I and (my) people are living? You better go back to your people and when you hear that I have been granted victory, you come to me. So I went to my family. I was in my home when the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) came to Medînah. I was among my people and used to seek news and ask people when he arrived in Medînah. Then a group of people belonging to Yathrib (Medînah) came. I said (to them): How is that person getting on who has come to Medînah? They said: The people are hastening to him, while his people (the polytheists of Makkah) planned to kill him, but they could not do so. I (on hearing it) came to Medînah and went to him and said: Messenger of Allâh, do you recognise me? He said: Yes, you are the same man who met me at Makkah. I said: It is so…. (Sahîh Muslim 832)
Sa’d ibn Abî Waqqâs
Imâm al-Maqdisi said: “He is Abû Ishâq ibn Abî Waqqâs Mâlik ibn Uhayb. His lineage connects with the Prophet (ﷺ) at Kilâb Ibn Murrah. He was from the foremost of those who embraced Islâm. He participated in all of the battles with the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ). He was the first person to shoot an arrow in the way of Allâh. He died in 55AH at around 70 years of age. He was the last of the 10 promised Paradise to die. (The Prophet & His Ten Companions)
Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs narrated: No man embraced Islâm before the day on which I embraced Islâm, and no doubt, I remained for seven days as one third of the then extant Muslims. (Sahîh Bukhârî 3727)
Imâm Ibn Kathîr & Ibn Hajr explained: He (Sa’d) spoke based on the information that he had at the time as we know other companions preceded him in embracing Islâm (Sahîh as-Sîrah).
‘Abdullâh ibn Mas’ûd
Ibn Mas’ûd narrated that: “I used to be a shepherd, looking after the sheep of Uqbah Ibn Abî Mua’it. One day the Prophet (ﷺ) and Abû Bakr passed by me – they were fleeing from the persecution of the Quraish in Makkah – and said:”O boy! Do you have any milk (you could give us to drink)?” I said: ‘Yes, but I am only a custodian (and as such cannot give you any of it).’ He (ﷺ) said: “Does the herd have any young sheep which does not yield milk?” So I brought them one such sheep, and he (ﷺ) passed his hand over its udder and it became full with milk and Abû Bakr milked it in a container. He (ﷺ) drank from it, and then Abû Bakr. He (ﷺ) then said to the udder: “reduce” and it reduced back to the way it was. (Later on) I approached him and said: ‘Teach me from these words (i.e. the Qur’ân).’ So he wiped his hand over my head and said: “Allâh have mercy on you, you are a little boy and you will learn (later).” So, (over the time) I learned from him seventy Sûrahs (chapters) directly from his lips, and no one else was with me when I learned them. (Musnad of Imâm Ahmad 3598, 3599, 4330, 4412) and Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
Abû Dharr al-Ghifârî
I was one fourth of Islâm. Only three people embraced Islâm before me. (Al-Hâkim in his mustadrak 5459. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
Abû Dharr said: “We set out from our tribe Ghifâr, who used to regard the sacred months as permissible (for fighting). I set out with my brother Unais and our mother, and we stayed with a maternal uncle of ours. Our uncle honored us and treated us kindly, but his people felt jealous of us, and they said: ‘When you are away from your wife, Unais comes into your house (i.e., an accusation of adultery).’ Our uncle came and told us of what had been said to him. I said: ‘As for your past kindness, you have undone it, and we cannot stay with you after this.’ We went to our camels and loaded them up, and our uncle covered himself with his garment and started weeping. We set out and halted at Makkah. Unais made a wager that our herd of camels was better than another similar herd, and they went to a soothsayer and he made Unais win and Unais came with our camels and an equal number along with them.” He (Abû Dharr) said (to ‘Abdullâh Ibn al-Sâmit): “I started to perform prayers, O son of my brother, three years before I met the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ). I (Abdullâh) said: ‘To whom?’ He said: ‘To Allâh.’ I said: ‘What direction did you face?’ He said: ‘I faced where my Lord directed me to. I used to pray at night until the end of the night, then I fell down (in exhaustion) like a piece of cloth until the sun rose over me.’” (Abû Dharr continued): “(One day) Unais said: ‘I have some work in Makkah; stay here.’ He went to Makkah, and he came back late. I said: ‘What did you do?’ He said: ‘I met a man in Makkah who follows your religion. He says that Allâh has sent him.’ I said: ‘What do the people say?’ He said: ‘They say that he is a poet, or a soothsayer, or a magician.’ And Unais was one of the poets. Unais said: ‘I have heard the words of the soothsayers, and he is not a soothsayer. I compared his words to the words of poetry, and no one after me can say that he is a poet. By Allâh, he is telling the truth and they are lying.’ I said: ‘Stay here while I go and look.’”
He (Abû Dharr) said: “I came to Makkah and looked for an insignificant man among them. I said: ‘Where is this man whom you call al-Sâbî’ (i.e. the one who changed his religion)?’ He pointed at me and called out: ‘He is a Sâbî’ (i.e. the man told on Abû Dharr). The people of the valley attacked me with clods of earth and bones, until I fell unconscious. I got up whenever I recovered, and it was as if I was a red idol (due to excessive blood loss). I went to Zamzam and washed the blood from myself, and I drank some of its water. O son of my brother, I stayed there for thirty nights or days and I had no food but the water of Zamzam, but I grew so fat that I got folds on my stomach and I did not feel any hunger in my stomach.”
(Abû Dharr continued): “While the people of Makkah were sleeping deeply one moonlit night, no one was circumambulating the Ka’bah except two of their women, who were calling upon Isâfâ and Nâ’ilah (two idols). They came to me during their circumambulation and I said:’ Marry one of them to the other. ‘ But they did not stop what they were saying. They came to me again and I said:’ They are just pieces of wood like private parts’ ;and I could not use a metaphor. They turned away from me saying: ‘If any of our people were here they would teach you a lesson.’ They were met by the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) and Abû Bakr as they were coming down the hill, and he (ﷺ) said: “What is the matter with you?” They (the women) said: ‘There is a sâbî’ between the Ka’bah and its curtain. He (ﷺ) said: “What did he say to you?” They said: ‘He uttered such words before us as we cannot express.’ The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) came and kissed the (Black) Stone, then he circumambulated the Ka’bah, along with his companion, then he prayed.” Abû Dharr said:” When he finished the prayer, I was the first one to greet him with the greeting of Islâm. I said: As-salâmu alaika yâ rasûlullâh. ” He (ﷺ) replied:” Wa ‘alaika salâm wa rahmatullaah.” Then he (ﷺ) said:” Who are you?” I said: ‘I am from Ghifâr.’ He (ﷺ) lifted his hand and placed his fingers on his forehead, and I said to myself: ‘He does not like the fact that I am from Ghifâr.’ I wanted to take his hand but his Companion stopped me, and he knew him better than I did. Then he raised his head and said: “How long have you been here?” I said: ‘I have been here for thirty days or nights.’ He (ﷺ) said: “Who has been feeding you?” I said: ‘I had no food except the water of Zamzam, and I have grown so fat that I have folds on my stomach, and I did not feel any hunger.’ He (ﷺ) said: “It is blessed, it serves as food.” Abû Bakr said: ‘O Messenger of Allâh, give me permission to offer him food tonight.’ The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) and Abû Bakr set off, and I went with them. Abû Bakr opened a door and brought us raisins of al-Ṭâ’if, and that was the first food I ate (in a month). I stayed for a while, then I came to the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) and he said: “I have been shown a land that has palm trees, and I do not think that it is any other than Yathrib (old name for al-Madînah). Will you convey a message from me to your people? Perhaps Allâh will benefit them through you and grant you reward through them.”
I came to Unais and he said: ‘What did you do?’ I said: ‘What I did is become a Muslim and attest to the truth.’ He said: ‘I have no aversion to your religion; I have also become Muslim and attested to the truth.’ We went to our mother and she said: ‘I have no aversion to your religion; I have also become Muslim and attested to the truth.’ We went to our people, Ghifâf, and half of them became Muslim, and they were led in prayer by Aymâ’ Ibn Rahadhah al-Ghifârî who was their chief. The other half of them said: ‘When the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) comes to al-Madìnah, we will become Muslim.’ When the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) came to al-Madînah, the other half also became Muslim. (The tribe of) Aslam came and said: ‘O Messenger of Allâh, (Ghifâr) are our brothers, we become Muslim on the same basis that they became Muslim.’ The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said: “May Allâh forgive Ghifâr and may Allâh keep Aslam safe and sound.” (Sahîh Muslim 2473)
Ibn Ishâq said: “The Arab soothsayers, Jewish rabbis and Christian monks spoke about the emergence of the Messenger of Allâh صلى الله عليه وسلم a short time before his Prophetic mission. The Jewish rabbis and Christian monks took their news from what is mentioned in their Scriptures, and the covenants taken from them by their Prophets (to belive him him once he emerged). The Arab soothsayers took theirs from their companions of the Jinn and Devils who used to hear stealthily of the news of the heavens, before they were prevented and thrown by the flaming fires.” (Sîrah Ibn Hishâm pg. 99)
Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e. Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) whom they find written with them in the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) – he commands them for Al-Ma‘rûf (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism and all that Islâm has ordained); and forbids them from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism of all kinds, and all that Islâm has forbidden); he allows them as lawful At-Tayyibât (i.e. all good and lawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods), and prohibits them as unlawful Al-Khabâ’ith (i.e. all evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons and foods), he releases them from their heavy burdens (of Allâh’s Covenant with the children of Israel), and from the fetters (bindings) that were upon them. So those who believe in him (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), honour him, help him, and follow the light (the Qur’ân) which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful. (Sûrah Al-‘Arâf 7:157)
The du’â of Ibrâhîm& glad tidings of ‘Îsâ
Abû Umâmah said, “I said, `O Allâh’s Messenger! What was the first good news of your coming’ The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: I am the invocation made to Allâh from my father Ibrâhîm and the glad tidings ‘Îsâ delivered. When my mother was pregnant with me, she had a dream in which she saw a light emanating from her that radiated the palaces of Busrâ in Ash-Shâm -(Syria).’ (At-Tabâranî, Musnad of Imâm Ahmad. Declared authentic by Ibn Kathîr in his Tafsîr & Al-Albânî in Sahîh As-Sîrah)
Shaykh Al-Albânî said: This hadîth contains glad tidings for Busrâ for it was the first piece of land to which the light of Prophethood arrived, all praise belongs to Allâh. This is why Busrâ was the first city of Syria that was conquered peacefully during Abû Bakr’s caliphate (Sahîh as-Sîrah)
Allâh says: (Ibrâhîm supplication for the people of Makkah)
Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own (and indeed Allâh answered their invocation by sending Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), who shall recite unto them Your Verses and instruct them in the Book (this Qur’ân) and Al-Hikmah (full knowledge of the Islâmic laws and jurisprudence or wisdom or Prophethood), and purify them. Verily! You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” (Sûrah al-Baqarah 2:129)
And (remember) when ‘Îsâ (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), said: “O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of Allâh unto you, confirming the Taurât [(Torah) which came] before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad. But when he (Ahmad i.e. Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) came to them with clear proofs, they said: “This is plain magic.” (Sûrah As-Saf 61:6)
The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: I have names. I am Muhammad, and I am Ahmad. I am Al-Mâhî through whom Allâh will eliminate disbelief. I am Al-Hâshir who will be the first to be resurrected, with the people being resurrected Hereafter. I am also Al-‘Âqib (i.e., there will be no Prophet after me).”) (Sahîh Muslim)
The Angel’s knowing before Âdam was created
The Messenger of Allâh صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “I was with Allâh as the Seal of the Prophets when Âdam was still in the form of mud – between spirit and body – on the ground.
In another narration : Abû Hurayrah asked the Messenger of Allâh صلى الله عليه وسلم : “When was the prophethood established for you?” He replied: “Between the creation of Âdam and the spirit being breathed into him.”
(Musnad Imâm Ahmad 16623, 17150, Ibn Hibbân, At-Tirmidhî. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
It is mentioned in the Gospel of Barnabas: ‘Then God gave his soul to man, while all the holy angels sang: “Blessed be your holy name, O God our Lord.” “Adam, having sprung upon his feet, saw in the air a writing that shone like the sun;, which said: “There is none worthy of worship but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God.” (Chapter 39)
The appearance of a star
Hassan ibn Thâbit narrated: “By Allâh, I was about seven or eight years old, I had not reached maturity but I could perceive and understand the things that I heard and saw. One morning a Jewish man was running crying out on in Atmah (a place) in Yathrib (Medînah) ‘O gathering of Jews!’ Jews gathered around the man saying ‘What is it? Why are you shouting?’ The man was crying out: ‘Let me give this news to you, Ahmad’s star has appeared tonight. Ahmad was born tonight.” (Ibn Ishâq. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
Abû Nu’aim and Muhammad Ibn Hibbân reported on the authority of Usâmah ibn Zayd that Zayd ibn ‘Amr ibn Nufayl said: “A rabbi from the rabbis of Syria informed me:’ A prophet has emerged or will emerge from your country, as the star indicating his emergence has appeared. So return to your land and believe in him and follow him.'” (Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
‘Prophethood is not with the Israelites anymore‘
Ibn al-Sa’d regarding the issue:
“There was a Jewish man living in Mecca. In the morning after the night the Messenger of God was born, he went and stood in front of the people of Quraish and asked: “Was a baby boy born tonight in your tribe?” People of Quraish answered: We do not know. Upon this answer, he continued his speech: “Go, search and seek; the prophet of this nation was born tonight. He has got a sign on his back (between his shoulders) with some hairs resembling horse hair. He will not breastfeed for two consecutive nights because an Ifrît will place his finger in his mouth to prevent him.” People of Quraish were astonished, and then they went and made a search. They came to the Jewish man and gave the news: “Abdullâh had a son tonight; he has got a sign on his back.” The Jewish man went and saw the seal of prophethood on his back which resembles a small egg. The Jew then fell unconscious. After he came around, he cried out as if he had lost his mind:“Prophethood is not with Israelites anymore. Are you happy with this o gathering of Quraish? The people of Quraish will be bestowed with such a great fame that it will be heard everywhere from east to west.” (Ibn Ishâq)
The Jew from the tribe of ‘Abd al-Ashhal
It is narrated on the authority of Salamah Ibn Salâmah Ibn Waqsh, who participated in the battle of Badr, that he said: We had a Jewish neighbour from Banu ‘Abd al-Ashhal, who came out to us one day from his house. At that time, I was one of the youngest in my people and I was lying on a gown of mine in my family’s courtyard. The Jew spoke of the Resurrection, reckoning, balance of deeds, Paradise and Hell. When he spoke about these things to the polytheists who thought there could be no resurrection after death, they said to him: “O man, do you really think such things could take place? Do you think that men could be raised from dead to a place where there is Paradise and Hell in which they will be recompensed for their deeds?” He said: “Yes!, by Him whom one swears by, I believe that my share of that Fire will be like the hottest oven in your house. It will be heated up and I will be cast into it and the next day I will be delivered from that Fire.” When they asked for a sign of his claims, he pointed towards Makkah and Yemen saying “A prophet will be sent from the direction of this land.” When they asked him when he would appear, he looked at me, the youngest person and said “This boy, if he lives his natural term we will see him.” By Allâh, only days and nights passed before Allâh sent His Messenger and he lived amongst us. We believed in him, but that man denied him out of animosity and wickedness. We said to him after this: “What is the matter with you! Woe to you! Are you not the one who said such and such to us about him what you said?” He said: “Certainly, but this is not him.” (Imâm Ahmads Musnad 3:467. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
The story of Sawâd Ibn Qârib Al-Azadî/Al-Sadûsî
Narrated by ‘Abdullâh ibn’ Umar:
I never heard ‘Umar saying about something that he thought it would be so-and-so, but he was quite right. Once, while `Umar was sitting, a handsome man passed by him, `Umar said, “If I am not mistaken, this person is still on his religion of the pre-lslamic period of ignorance or he was their soothsayer. Call the man to me.” When the man was called to him, he told him of his thought. The man said, “I have never seen such a day on which a Muslim is faced with such an accusation.” `Umar said, “I am determined that you should tell me the truth.” He said, “I was a soothsayer in the pre-lslamic period of ignorance.” Then `Umar said, “Tell me the most astonishing thing your female Jinn has told you of.” He said, “One-day while I was in the market, she came to me scared and said, ‘Haven’t you seen the Jinns and their despair and they were overthrown after their defeat (and prevented from listening to the news of the heaven) so that they (stopped going to the sky and) kept following camel-riders (i.e. ‘Arabs)?” `Umar said, “He is right.” and added, “One day while I was near their idols, there came a man with a calf and slaughtered it as a sacrifice (for the idols) [and we were waiting till it would be divided and distributed amongst us]. An (unseen) creature shouted at him, and I have never heard harsher than his voice. He was crying, ‘O you Najîh (tribe)! A matter of success! An eloquent man who will say: None has the right to be worshipped except O Allah. ‘ On that the people fled, but I said, ‘I shall not go away till I know what is behind this.’ Then the cry came again: ‘O you Najîh! A matter of success! An eloquent man who will say: None has the right to be worshipped except Allah.’ I then went away and a few days later it was said, “A prophet has appeared.” (Sahîh al-Bukhârî 3866)
Shaykh Al-Albânî said:
The person’s name was Sawaad Ibn Qârib al-Azadî, and some said he is Sawâd Ibn Qârib al-Sadûsî, from the people of al-Sarâh, from the mountains of al-Balqâ’, and he was one of the Companions (Sahîh As-Sîrah).
Bâhîrah the monk
Abû Mûsa Al-Ash’ari:”Abû Tâlib departed to Ash-Shâm, and the Prophet (ﷺ) left with him, along with some older men from the Quraish. When they came across the monk – Bahîrah – they stopped there and began setting up their camp, and the monk came out to them. Before that they used to pass by him and he wouldn’t come out nor pay attention to them.” He said: “They were setting up their camp when the monk was walking amidst them, until he came and took the hand of the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ). Then he said: ‘This is the master of the men and jinn, this is the Messenger of the Lord of the worlds. Allâh will raise him as a mercy to the men and jinn.’ So some of the older people from the Quraish said: ‘What do you know?’ He said: ‘When you people came along from the road, not a rock nor a tree was left, except that it prostrated, and they do not prostrate except for a Prophet. And I can recognize him by the seal of the Prophethood which is below his shoulder blade, like an apple.’ Then he went back, and made them some food, and when he brought it to them, he [the Prophet (ﷺ)] was tending to the camels. So he said: ‘Send for him.’ So he came, and there was a cloud over him that was shading him. When he came close to the people, he found that they had beaten him to the tree’s shade. So when he sat down, the shade of the tree leaned towards him. He (the monk) said: ‘Look at the shade of the tree leaning towards him.'” He said: “So while he was standing over them, telling them not to take him to Rome with him – because if the Romans were to see him, they would recognize him by his description, and they would kill him – he turned, and there were seven people who had come from Rome. So he faced them and said: ‘Why have you come?’ They said: ‘We came because this Prophet is going to appear during this month, and there isn’t a road left except that people have been sent to it, and we have been informed of him, and we have been send to this road of yours.’ So he said: ‘Is there anyone better than you behind you?’ They said: ‘We only have news of him from this road of yours.’ He said: ‘Do you think that if there is a matter which Allâh wishes to bring about, there is anyone among the people who can turn it away?’ They said: ‘No.'” He said: “So they gave him their pledge, and they stayed with him. And he said: ‘I ask you by Allâh, which of you is his guardian?’ They said: ‘Abu Talib.’ So he kept adjuring him until Abu Talib returned him (back to Makkah) and he sent Abu Bakr and Bilal with him. And the monk gave him provisions of Ka’k (a type of bread) and olive oil.” (Sunan At-Tirmidhî 3620. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî, but the mention of Bilâl mentioned is rejected as he was not born yet)
The woman from Madînah and her jinn
Al-Hâfidh Abû Nu’aim reported from Jâbir ibn ‘Abdullâh: The first news that arrived Al-Madînah about the advent of the Prophet (ﷺ) was as follows: A certain woman in Al-Madînah had an assistant from the Jinn. He (the Jinn) came (to her) in the form of a white bird and landed on the wall. She said to him: “Will you not come down to us and speak to us and we speak to you, and you inform us and we inform you?”
He (the Jinn) said: “A Prophet has been sent in Makkah, who has prohibited illegal sexual intercourse, and taken away our tranquillity (and prevented from listening to the news of the heaven).” (Abû Nu’aim Dalâil al-Nubuwwah 56. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
The polytheists vs the people of the book
‘Âsim Ibn Umar narrated from a group of men from his people: From the things that guided us to Islâm in addition to mercy and guidance from Allâh, was what we had learnt from the Jews. We were polytheists, and they were people of the Scripture, and had knowledge which we did not possess. Whenever there were disputes between us and they received from us such of harm as they disliked,they would say to us: ” We are close in time to the emergence of a Prophet to be sent by Allâh and we, along with him, would kill you in the same manner as both ‘Âd and Iram were killed.” We used to hear that from them regularly.
When Allâh sent His Messenger with Islâm, we responded to him once he called us to Allâh and knew the reality of that which they threatened us with, thereupon we preceded them to it. Thus we believed in him, whereas they disbelieved in him.
It was for this reason Allâh revealed Sûrah Baqarah 89. (Ibn Ishâq, Sirah of Ibn Hisham, Tafsir Ibn Kathîr, Declared Sahih by Al-Albani)
The mention of Ibn al-Haybân
‘Âsim Ibn Umar Ibn Qatâdah narrated that an old man from Banu Quraythah said to him: “Do you know how Tha’labah Ibn Sa’yah, Usayd Ibn Sa’yah and Asad Ibn’ Ubayd from Banu Quraythah embraced Islâm? They were brothers of Banu Quraythah, they were ordinary people from Banu Hadl and later became leaders in Islâm.” I then said I do not know. He responded:” There was a Jew from Shâm called Ibn al-Haybân who came to us and lived in Medinah some years before the advent of Islâm. “
He continued : “We did not see a man that did not pray the 5 daily prayers better than him. At that time we experienced a drought so we would ask him to come out and pray for rain for us. He declined to do so unless we gave him a sa’ of dates or two mudd of barley in charity. On doing so, he would go outside our Harrah and pray for rain for us. By Allâh, hardly had he left his place before clouds passed over us and rained. He did this not once, twice or thrice (but many times). When he was about to die while he was amongst us, he said:”O Jews, what do you think made me leave the land of bread and wine to come to the land of hardship and hunger?” They said:”You know better.” He said:” I have come to this territory expecting to see the emergence of a prophet whose time is at hand. This is the town where he would migrate and I hoped that he would be sent so that I could follow him. His time has drawn near so, let none follow him before you, for he will be sent to shed the blood of those who oppose him and capture their women and children. Let not that keep you back from believing in him.” Thus, when the Messenger of Allâh was sent and besieged Banu Quraythah, those young men said: ‘This is the Prophet to whom Ibn al-Haybân referred.” Some of them said that this is not true, but the others asserted that he is really the Prophet as described. Accordingly they came down the fortress and embraced Islâm. In this way saved their lives, property and families.” (Al-Bayhaqi 2:80. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
“Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e. Muhammad) whom they find written with them in the Tawraat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)… (Sûrah al-A’râf 7:157)
The Jews immigration to Saudi Arabia dates back to the destruction of the first temple by the Romans. After the 2nd Century, immigration began earnest until by the 6th/7th Century, there was a considerable Jewish population in Hijâz (mostly in Medinah).
It is evident from the above narrations and history that the Jews migrated to Arabia expecting a prophet based on biblical testimony. Some texts will be mentioned below:
1) Behold My servant, whom I uphold; Mine elect, in whom My soul delighteth; I have put My spirit upon him, he shall make the right to go forth to the nations….He will sing to the Lord a new song, his praise from the ends of the Earth and all who live in them… Let the wilderness and the towns thereof lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar do inhabit; let the inhabitants of Sela sing for joy, let them shout from the top of the mountains. (Isiah 42:1-11)
A few points:
– This verse includes a prophecy of a prophet whom Allâh is well pleased with. He will be chosen, selected and supported by Allâh. He will be commanded to propagate his call to the entire world (different nations). (The prophet said: “Allâh has given me that which he did not give to any other prophet… He has sent me as a messenger to all mankind” Sahîh Muslim 523)
– It is well known that ‘Abdullâh’ (The servant of Allâh) is a reference to Muhammad. Allâh says: “Yet when the servant of Allâh (Abdullâh ref to Muhammad) stood up supplicating…”(Qur’ân 72:19). Likewise ‘Al-Mustafâ’ (The chosen one) is a reference to Muhammad (See Qur’ân 6:124)
– The verse then mentions certain characteristics which this prophet will possess such as not raising his voice in the streets and not growing weak nor being discouraged to establish justice on Earth.
Anyone who is familiar with the Prophet Muhammads صلى الله عليه وسلم characteristics is fully aware that he possessed the best of manners. Allâh says: “And verily, you O Muhammad are on an exalted standard of character.” (Qur’ân 68:4). Similarly, Allâh says: “And by the Mercy of Allâh, you (Muhammad) dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and harsh – hearted they would have broken away from you.” (Qur’ân 3:159).
Anas said regarding the Prophet “He was the most handsome, the most generous and the bravest of all people…” (Muslim 2307).
– We then have a mention of the Prophet singing a ‘new song’. Prophet Muhammad came with a new Islâm (in a specific sense) and law of Qur’ân. And the praise of Allâh (by way of this religion) should be followed and accepted by all. The prophet said: “This religion will certainly reach every place touched by night and day, Allâh will not leave a house or residence but Allâh will cause this religion to enter it.. (Musnad Imâm Ahmad 16957).
– Following this, there is an indication of the place the Prophet and this new religion will emerge from and gain strength – Arabia, more specifically Medînah.
Kedar or قيدار : is the name of the second son of Ismâ’îl and sometimes a reference to the tribes of Kedar – inhabitants of Northern-Western Arabian Peninsula.
Mount Sela or سلع: a mountain situated in the Medinah Municipality in Saudi Arabia.
Albert Barnes (d. 1870) said: “… It is a call upon Arabia in general to rejoice in the mercy of God, and to give glory to him for providing a plan of redemption – an intimation that to the descendants of Ishmael the blessings of the gospel would be extended” (Isiah 42:11 commentary).
Further, the people of the book – particularly the Jews – knew of the exact location and its descriptions. In the previous narrations, it has been mentioned that the Prophet would appear somewhere between two rocky scorched plains, with date palms (i.e reference to Medînah).
2) The disciples answered, “O Master, who shall that man be of whom you speak, who shall come into the world?” Jesus answered with joy of heart: ‘He is Muhammad;, Messenger of God, and when he comes into the world, even as the rain makes the earth to bear fruit when for a long time it has not rained, even so shall he be occasion of good works among men, through the abundant mercy which he shall bring. For he is a white cloud full of the mercy of God, which mercy God shall sprinkle upon the faithful like rain.’ (The Gospel of Barnabas Chapter 163)
3) ετι πολλα εχω ϋμιν λεγειν · αλλ ου δυναϲθαι βαϲτα ζειν · οταν δε ελθη εκεινοϲ · το πνα τηϲ αληθιαϲ · οδη γηϲει ϋμαϲ εν τη αληθεια · ου γαρ λα ληϲει αφ εαυτου · αλλʼ οϲἁ ακουει λα ληϲει . και τα ερχομενα αναγγελλει ημιν : εκεινοϲ εμε δοξαϲει · οτι εκ του εμου λημψεται · κ(αι) αναγγελλει ϋμιν (Codex Syriacus)
I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. However, when He, the comforter/spirit of truth, has come, He will guide you into all truth; for He will not speak on His own authority, but whatever He hears He will speak; and He will tell you things to come. He will glorify Me… (John 16 12-15).
A few points:
– The Greek word paravklhtoß, ho parakletos, has been translated as ‘Comforter.’ Parakletos more precisely means ‘one who pleads another’s cause, an intercessor.’ The ho parakletos is a person in the Greek language, not an incorporeal entity. In the Greek language, every noun possesses gender; that is, it is masculine, feminine or neutral.
– The one being referred to in this text is not ‘the holy ghost/spirit’ as ‘the holy spirit’ was present during the life of Jesus (see Luke 1:35 and Matthew 3:16). Thus, the one being referenced in the text will not appear or come until Jesus leaves Earth. Similarly, it is evident the one being referenced in this text is human due to the usage of the words ‘he’ and not ‘it’, and the words ‘speak’, ‘hear’.
– The characteristics of this person fit the description of the Prophet ….
Allah says (which means) ”Nor does he (Muhammad) speak of (his own) desire. It is a revelation which has been revealed to him” (Surah An-Najm 53:3-4).
The Messenger of Allah has explained things to come (i.e unseen events) so much so that we cannot enumerate them. He has mentioned things that have occurred (i.e the large fire in Medinah in 654 AH, Islam spreading beyond the Arabian Peninsula, Muslims fighting the Turks/Tartars), things that have occurred and are ongoing (i.e Arabs competing for tall buildings, spread of tribulations, people longing for death, spread of killing & fornication & musical instruments & female singers & alcohol-consumption, women dressing up clothed yet naked, appointment of unqualified people to positions of authority, the police oppressing the people, trust and honesty being lost, Saudi Arabia turning green, River Euphrates drying up), and things which are yet to occur (i.e animals & inanimate objects speaking to humans, the appearance of the Mahdi and other major signs).
‘He will glorify me…’ No doubt for Muslims to believe in Jesus is a requirement of faith. We hold Jesus to be from the Ulool-‘Azm (The Messengers of Strong Will 46:35). The prophet also said about Jesus ” I am the closest of the people to Jesus son of Mary in this life and in the Hereafter. The prophets have one religion and there was no other prophet between us” (Sahih Muslim 2365). The Qur’an glorifies Jesus, Allah says (meaning) ”(Remember) when the angels said: “O Maryam (Mary)! Verily, Allah gives you the glad tidings of a Word [“Be!” – and he was! i.e. ‘Iesa (Jesus) the son of Maryam (Mary)] from Him, his name will be the Messiah ‘Iesa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), held in honour in this world and in the Hereafter, and will be one of those who are near to Allah.” Likewise Allah mentions many virtues in the Qur’an regarding Jesus, such as miracles that he performed that even the Bible has no account of (see 3:48-51). Similarly, the Messenger has mentioned regarding Jesus, ”No one spoke in the cradle but three persons, Jesus son of Mary…(Bukhari and Muslim).
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: It is called sadaqah because it is an indicator of the truth – sidq – of a persons îmân, of the one who pays it. Its attachment to the word al-fitr is the attachment of something to its time, as is said: ‘Salâtul-Fajr or Salâtul-Maghrib’. (Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 172)
The ruling of Zakâh Al-Fitr
عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَرَضَ زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ، عَلَى كُلِّ حُرٍّ أَوْ عَبْدٍ، ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَى، مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ
Ibn ‘Umar narrated: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) made it obligatory upon the slave or free Muslim, male or female, to give one Sa’ of dates or barley as Zakâtul-Fitr. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1504)
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: In this hadîth ‘Abdullâh Ibn ‘Umar informed us that the Prophet obligated for his nation Zakâh Al-Fitr… (Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 172/173)
Imâm Muhammad Al-Mundhir said: They (the islâmic jurists) agreed that Zakâh Al-Fitr is obligatory. (Al-Ijmâ’ 106)
On whom Zakâh Al-Fitr is obligatory upon
عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ عَلَى الْعَبْدِ وَالْحُرِّ، وَالذَّكَرِ وَالأُنْثَى، وَالصَّغِيرِ وَالْكَبِيرِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ،
Ibn ‘Umar narrated: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) enjoined the payment of one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley as Zakâtul-Fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old.. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1503)
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: Zakâh Al-Fitr is obligatory upon the adult, the young, the male, the female, the freed and enslaved from the Muslims. Zakâh Al-Fitr is not obligatory for the fetus, except if you choose to do so voluntarily as The Commander of the Believers, ‘Uthmân used to do. Zakâh Al-Fitr is obligatory only on those who have enough to cover their needs for ‘îd and extra. Every Muslim must give it on behalf of himself and those whom he is responsible for, including his wife and relatives if they cannot give it out on their own. (Abridged from Majâlis Sharh Ramadân, 28th sitting)
Shaykh Abdurrahmân As-Sa’dî said: Zakâh Al-Fitr is obligatory upon oneself and for those whom he is obligated to spend upon, if he posses what is more than his provisions for a day and night :a sa’ of dates, grains, dried yogurt, raisins or wheat. (Minhaj Al-Sâlikîn 67)
Ibn Rushd said: The jurists agreed that is it obligatory on each person who is able to pay it on his own behalf, for it is a Zakâh on the person and not on wealth. It is also obligatory on the person to pay it on behalf of his minor children if they do not possess independent wealth, and also for the slaves if they do not possess any wealth. (Bidâyat Al-Mujtahid 1/325)
The wisdom of giving Zakâh Al-Fitr & when it is due
عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ طُهْرَةً لِلصَّائِمِ مِنَ اللَّغْوِ وَالرَّفَثِ وَطُعْمَةً لِلْمَسَاكِينِ مَنْ أَدَّاهَا قَبْلَ الصَّلاَةِ فَهِيَ زَكَاةٌ مَقْبُولَةٌ وَمَنْ أَدَّاهَا بَعْدَ الصَّلاَةِ فَهِيَ صَدَقَةٌ مِنَ الصَّدَقَاتِ
‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Abbâs narrated: The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) prescribed Zakâh Al-Fitr as a purification of the fasting person from empty and obscene talk and as food for the poor. If anyone pays it before the prayer (of ‘Îd), it will be accepted as Zakâh. If anyone pays it after the prayer, that will be a sadaqah like other sadaqahs (alms). (Abû Dawûd 1609. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم…. وَأَمَرَ بِهَا أَنْ تُؤَدَّى قَبْلَ خُرُوجِ النَّاسِ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ
Ibn ‘Umar narrated: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the ‘Îd prayer. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1503)
Nâfi’ narrated: Ibn ‘Umar used to give Zakâtul-Fitr for every young and old person. He even used to give on behalf of my children. Ibn’ Umar used to give Zakâtul-Fitr to those who had been officially appointed for its collection. People used to give Zakâtul-Fitr a day or two before the ‘Îd. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1511)
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: The performance (of Zakâh Al-Fitr) is a worship for Allâh, a purification for the one who pays it, a cleansing for the one who fasted from bad speech and evil actions, and food for the poor to enjoy on the day of ‘Îd just as the rich do. (Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 172)
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: The obligatory time of giving out the Zakâh Al-Fitr is after the sunset of the night before ‘Îd. This is because it is the time in which fasting the month of Ramadân ends and breaking the fast begins from that time. This is the reason why it is said “zakâtul-fitr” (the charity of breaking the fast of Ramadân).
The preferable time to give Zakâh Al-Fitr begins the morning of the ‘Îd prayer, before the prayer itself. The proof of this is the above mentioned hadîth [Sahîh Bukhârî 1503].
The permissible time to give Zakâh Al-Fitr begins a day or two before ‘Îd day. It is narrated by Nâfi’ who said about Ibn ‘Umar… [ refer to the above mentioned narration Sahîh Bukhârî 1511].
It is not permissible to delay it until after the ‘Îd prayer. (Majâlis Sharh Ramadân, 28th sitting)
What & how much must be given
عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ كُنَّا نُعْطِيهَا فِي زَمَانِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَاعًا مِنْ طَعَامٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ زَبِيبٍ، فَلَمَّا جَاءَ مُعَاوِيَةُ وَجَاءَتِ السَّمْرَاءُ قَالَ أُرَى مُدًّا مِنْ هَذَا يَعْدِلُ مُدَّيْنِ
Abû Sa’îd Al-Khudrî narrated: In the lifetime of the Prophet (ﷺ) we used to give one Sa’ of food or one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley or one Sa’ of Raisins (dried grapes) as Zakâtul-Fitr. And when Mu’âwiyah became the Caliph and the wheat was (available in abundance) he said, “I think (observe) that one Mudd (of wheat) equals two Mudds (of any of the above mentioned things). (Sahîh Bukhârî 1508)
Our food used to be either of barley, raisins (dried grapes), cottage cheese or dates. (Sahîh Bukhârî 1510)
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: As for what should be given for the Zakâh, it is whatever the sons of Âdam consume including dates, wheat, rice, barley, raisins, cheese or other than that.
The amount of food that should be given is one Sa’ of food even if the type and value of food differs. This is due to the general nature of the narrations.
As for the quantity of Zakâtul-Fitr, it is equal to the Prophetic Sa’, which measures to 480 mithqâl of the pure barley and in grams it is equal to 2.4 kilograms. (Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 172, Majâlis Sharh Ramadân 28th sitting).
For more information regarding the Prophetic sa’ & mudd measurements please see:
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: Giving cash instead of food will not be accepted, because it is contrary to what the Prophet (ﷺ) commanded us with. It is narrated that he (ﷺ) said:
من عمل عملا ليس عليه أمرنا فهو رد
Whoever does a deed which is not in accordance to this affair (religion) of ours, then it is rejected (Sahîh Muslim)
Who to give Zakâh Al-Fitr to
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said: Zakâh Al-Fitr should be paid to the poor people of your land, where you are residing, whether you are a residing there permanently or temporarily. If you are in a land where there is no one to receive it because everyone is well off, you should entrust someone who lives in a place where there are poor people, in order that they may give it on your behalf. (Majâlis Sharh Ramadân, 28th sitting)
Ibn Rushd: They (the jurists) agreed that Zakâh Al-Fitr is to be given to the poor, because of the prophets (ﷺ) statement “make them free from want this day”.
The words qadr and qadar mean decree, majesty or high esteem. Thus, Laylatul-Qadr means the Night of Decree or the Night of Majesty. (Lisân al-‘Arab)
It is called Laylatul-Qadr because of its great virtue and status, that is, its excellence in the sight of Allâh. Also, the ordainments about what will happen in the coming year concerning life terms, sustenance and worldly events are all decided during Laylatul-Qadr. (Tafsîr As-Sa’dî 97)
The Virtues of Laylatul-Qadr
1) The Revelation of The Qur’ân
إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَٰهُ فِي لَيۡلَةِ ٱلۡقَدۡرِ ١
Verily! We have sent it (this Qur’ân) down in the night of Al-Qadr (Decree) (Sûrah Al-Qadr 97:1)
Ibn Kathir said: Ibn ‘Abbâs and others have said, “Allâh sent the Qur’ân down all at one time from the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfûdh) to the House of Might (Baytul-‘Izzah), which is in the heaven of this world. Then it came down in parts to the Messenger of Allâh based upon the incidents that occurred over a period of twenty-three years.” (Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr 97)
2) A night better than a thousand months
لَيۡلَةُ ٱلۡقَدۡرِ خَيۡرٞ مِّنۡ أَلۡفِ شَهۡرٖ ٣
The night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allâh in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, (i.e. 83 years and 4 months). (Sûrah Al-Qadr 97:3)
On account of its virtue, this night is better than a thousand months, in that, performing good deeds during it is better than performing acts of worship for a thousand months. (Tafsîr As-Sa’dî 97)
3) A night which Allâh decrees His wise ordainments
Therein descend the angels and the Rûh [Jibrîl (Gabriel)] by Allâhs Permission with all Decrees (Sûrah Al-Qadr 97:4)
The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
ليلةُ القدرِ ليلةُ السابعةِ أو التاسعةِ وعشرين، وإن الملائكةَ تلك الليلةَ أَكْثَرُ في الأرضِ من عَدَدِ الحَصَى
Laylatul-Qadr is the night of the twenty-seventh or twenty-ninth. Indeed, during that night, the angels on earth are more than the numbers of pebbles. (Ibn Khuzaymah 2194. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
The angels descend in abundance during the Night of Al-Qadr due to its abundant blessings. The angels descend with the descending of blessings and mercy. Qatâdah and others have said, “The matters are determined during it, and the times of death and provisions are measured out during it.” (Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr 97)
4) There is peace until Fajr
سَلَٰمٌ هِيَ حَتَّىٰ مَطۡلَعِ ٱلۡفَجۡرِ ٥
Peace! (All that night, there is Peace and Goodness from Allâh to His believing slaves) until the appearance of dawn. (Sûrah Al-Qadr 97:5)
Mujâhid said, “Peace concerning every matter.” Sa’îd ibn Mansûr said, ‘Isâ ibn Yûnus told us that Al-A’mash narrated to them that Mujâhid said concerning Allâhs statement,﴿سَلَـمٌ هِىَ﴾(There is peace) “It is security in which Shaytân cannot do any evil or any harm.” (Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr 97)
It is a peaceful night, free from every type of evil and wickedness on account of its abundant goodness. (Tafsîr As-Sa’dî 97)
He who observes the fast of Ramadân with faith and seeking reward (from Allâh), all his previous sins would be forgiven, and he who observed prayer on Lailatul-Qadr with faith and seeking reward (from Allâh), all his previous sins would be forgiven. (Sahîh Muslim 760)
Ibn ‘Umar reported: The Messenger of Allâh صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Look for the Night of Decree in the last ten nights of Ramadân. If one of you is weak or unable, then let him not miss (at least) the last seven nights” (Sahîh Muslim 1165)
The odd/even nights of the last ten nights
عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ “ تَحَرَّوْا لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ فِي الْوِتْرِ مِنَ الْعَشْرِ الأَوَاخِرِ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ ”.
‘Âishah narrated: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Search for the Night of Qadr in the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadân.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 2017)
عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ “ الْتَمِسُوهَا فِي الْعَشْرِ الأَوَاخِرِ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ فِي تَاسِعَةٍ تَبْقَى، فِي سَابِعَةٍ تَبْقَى، فِي خَامِسَةٍ تَبْقَى ”.
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbâs: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Seek for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of Ramadân; on the night when nine or seven or five nights remain out of the last ten nights of Ramadân. (Sahîh Bukhârî 2021)
Shaikhul Islām states (after being asked about Lailatul Qadr):
” Alhamdullillah lailatul Qadr is in the last ten nights of the month of ramadhān, this is how it has authentically occurred from the messenger – (ﷺ ) that he said:
“It is in the last ten days of Ramadhān”
and it is in the odd nights.
The odd nights though, are viewed in respect to that which has passed (from the month), thus one seeks out the 21st and the 23rd and the 25th and the 27th and the 29th.
It is also sought from a point of view of what remains (from the month). Just as the Prophet – Sallallahu alaihi Was salam said (In the Hadīth of Abu Bakarah – Radhiyallahu anhu):
“(seek it) on the ninth of the nights remaining of ramadhān, the seventh of the nights remaining of Ramadhān, the fifth of the nights remaining of ramadhān, the third of the nights remaining of ramadhān”
(Collected by Imaam Abu Dawood At Tayālisi (922 – Turki print) and tirmidhi and declared ‘Sahīh bu Shaikh Nāsir in Sahīh Sunan At Tirmidhi (636))
Based upon this, if it is a 30 day month, then that will occur on even nights, and the 22nd night will be the 9th of the nights remaining from ramadhān, the 24th will be the 7th of the nights remaining from ramadhān (and so on). This is how Abu Sa’īd Al Khudhri explained it in an authentic hadīth. And thus the Prophet (ﷺ ) established the month in this way.
If (however) the month is of 29 days, (as lunar months often are) then the remaining days (as it relates to them falling on odd or even nights) will be the same as the past days (meaning whichever way one looks at it on a 29 day month, the odd nights in respect to looking at the month from the beginning will start from the 21st and considering the second hadīth, counting down, the ninth night will also fall on the 21st and eight will be on the 22nd and so on)
Therefore if this is the case it is befitting that the believer seeks it out in all of the (nights of the) last ten..”
عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ. كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُجَاوِرُ فِي رَمَضَانَ الْعَشْرَ الَّتِي فِي وَسَطِ الشَّهْرِ، فَإِذَا كَانَ حِينَ يُمْسِي مِنْ عِشْرِينَ لَيْلَةً تَمْضِي، وَيَسْتَقْبِلُ إِحْدَى وَعِشْرِينَ، رَجَعَ إِلَى مَسْكَنِهِ وَرَجَعَ مَنْ كَانَ يُجَاوِرُ مَعَهُ. وَأَنَّهُ أَقَامَ فِي شَهْرٍ جَاوَرَ فِيهِ اللَّيْلَةَ الَّتِي كَانَ يَرْجِعُ فِيهَا، فَخَطَبَ النَّاسَ، فَأَمَرَهُمْ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ، ثُمَّ قَالَ “ كُنْتُ أُجَاوِرُ هَذِهِ الْعَشْرَ، ثُمَّ قَدْ بَدَا لِي أَنْ أُجَاوِرَ هَذِهِ الْعَشْرَ الأَوَاخِرَ، فَمَنْ كَانَ اعْتَكَفَ مَعِي فَلْيَثْبُتْ فِي مُعْتَكَفِهِ، وَقَدْ أُرِيتُ هَذِهِ اللَّيْلَةَ ثُمَّ أُنْسِيتُهَا فَابْتَغُوهَا فِي الْعَشْرِ الأَوَاخِرِ وَابْتَغُوهَا فِي كُلِّ وِتْرٍ، وَقَدْ رَأَيْتُنِي أَسْجُدُ فِي مَاءٍ وَطِينٍ فَاسْتَهَلَّتِ السَّمَاءُ فِي تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةِ، فَأَمْطَرَتْ، فَوَكَفَ الْمَسْجِدُ فِي مُصَلَّى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَيْلَةَ إِحْدَى وَعِشْرِينَ، فَبَصُرَتْ عَيْنِي رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَنَظَرْتُ إِلَيْهِ انْصَرَفَ مِنَ الصُّبْحِ، وَوَجْهُهُ مُمْتَلِئٌ طِينًا وَمَاءً.
Narrated by Abû Sa’îd Al-Khudrî: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) used to practice I’tikâf (in the mosque) in the middle third of Ramadân and after passing the twenty nights he used to go back to his house on the 21st, and the people who were in I’tikâf with him also used to go back to their houses. Once in Ramadân, in which he practiced I’tikâf, he established the night prayers at the night in which he used to return home, and then he addressed the people and ordered them whatever Allâh wished him to order and said, “I used to practice I’tikâf for these ten days (i.e. the middle third but now I intend to stay in I’tikâf for the last ten days (of the month); so whoever was in I’tikâf with me should stay at his place of seclusion. I have verily been shown (the date of) this Night (of Qadr) but I have forgotten it. So search for it in the odd nights of the last ten days (of this month). I also saw myself (in a dream) prostrating in mud and water the following morning.” On the night of the 21st, the sky was covered with clouds and it rained, and the rainwater started leaking through the roof of the mosque at the praying place of the Prophet (ﷺ) . I saw with my own eyes the Prophet at the completion of the morning prayer leaving with his face covered with mud and water. (Sahîh Bukhârî 2018)
The night of the twenty-third
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُنَيْسٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ “ أُرِيتُ لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ ثُمَّ أُنْسِيتُهَا وَأَرَانِي صُبْحَهَا أَسْجُدُ فِي مَاءٍ وَطِينٍ ” . قَالَ فَمُطِرْنَا لَيْلَةَ ثَلاَثٍ وَعِشْرِينَ فَصَلَّى بِنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَانْصَرَفَ وَإِنَّ أَثَرَ الْمَاءِ وَالطِّينِ عَلَى جَبْهَتِهِ وَأَنْفِهِ . قَالَ وَكَانَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أُنَيْسٍ يَقُولُ ثَلاَثٍ وَعِشْرِينَ
Abdullâh ibn Unais reported Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: I was shown the night of decree; then I was made to forget it, and saw that I was prostrating in water and clay in the morning of that (night). He (the narrator) said: There was a downpour on the twenty-third night and the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) led us in prayer, and as he went back, there was a trace of water and clay on his forehead and on his nose. He (the narrator) said: ‘Abdullâh ibn Unais used to say that it was the twenty-third (night). (Sahîh Muslim 1168)
The night of the twenty-fourth
The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
أُنزلتْ صحفُ إبراهيمَ أولَ ليلةٍ من شهرِ رمضانَ ، و أُنزلتِ التوراةُ لستٍّ مضتْ من رمضانَ ، و أُنزل الإنجيلُ بثلاثِ عشرةَ مضتْ من رمضانَ ، و أُنزِلَ الزبورُ لثمانِ عشرةَ خلَتْ من رمضانَ ، وأُنزلَ القرآنُ لأربعٍ وعشرينَ خلتْ من رمضانَ
The scrolls of Ibrâhîm were revealed on the first night of the month of Ramadân, and the Tawrah was revealed on the 6th day of Ramadân. The Injîl was revealed on the 13th day of Ramadân and the Zabûr on the 18th day of Ramadân and the Qur’ân was revealed on the 24th of Ramadân. (Sahîh al-Jâmi’ 1497. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
Zirr ibn Hubaish reported:I heard from Ubayy ibn Ka’b a statement made by ‘Abdullâh ibn Mas’ûd in which he said: He who gets up for prayer (every night) during the year will encounter upon Lailatul-Qadr. Ubayy said: By Allâh, whom none has the right to be worshiped but He, that (Lailatul-Qadr) is in Ramadân (He swore without reservation: ) By Allâh, I know the night; it is the night on which the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) commanded us to pray. It is that which precedes the morning of twenty-seventh and its indication is that the sun rises bright/white on that day without rays. (Sahîh Muslim 762)
He صلى الله عليه وسلم also said:
ليلةُ القدرِ ليلةُ السابعةِ أو التاسعةِ وعشرين، وإن الملائكةَ تلك الليلةَ أَكْثَرُ في الأرضِ من عَدَدِ الحَصَى
Laylatul-Qadr is the night of the twenty-seventh or twenty-ninth. Indeed, during that night, the angels on earth are more than the numbers of pebbles. (Ibn Khuzaymah 2194. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
The night of the twenty-ninth
In a hadîth that has preceeded:
ليلةُ القدرِ ليلةُ السابعةِ أو التاسعةِ وعشرين، وإن الملائكةَ تلك الليلةَ أَكْثَرُ في الأرضِ من عَدَدِ الحَصَى
Laylatul-Qadr is the night of the twenty-seventh or twenty-ninth. Indeed, during that night, the angels on earth are more than the numbers of pebbles. (Ibn Khuzaymah 2194. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
The last night of Ramadân
معاوية بن أبي سفيان رضي الله عنهما قال النبي صلّى الله عليه و سلّم : الْتمِسوا ليلةَ القدرِ آخرَ ليلةٍ مِن رمضانَ
Mu’âwiyah Ibn Abû Sufyân narrated: Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) said: Seek Laylatul-Qadr on the last night of Ramadân. (Sahîh Al-Jâmi’ 1238. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
Signs of Laylatul-Qadr
The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
صبِيحةَ ليلةِ القدْرِ تَطلُعُ الشَّمسُ لا شُعاعَ لها ؛ كأنَّها طِسْتٌ حتى تَرْتَفِعَ
On the morning following Laylatul-Qadr, the sun rises without rays, resembling a dish, until it becomes high. (Sahîh al-Jâmi 3754. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
ليلةُ القدرِ ليلةٌ سمحةٌ، طلقةٌ، لا حارةٌ و لا باردةٌ، تصبحُ الشمسُ صبيحتَها ضعيفةً حمراءَ
Laylatul-Qadr is an easy and moderate night. It is neither hot nor cold. On the morning following it, the sun rises weak and reddish. (Sahîh al-Jâmi 5475. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
‘Âishah narrated: “I said: ‘O Messenger of Allâh, if I know when the Night of Al-Qadr is, then what should I say in it?” He said: ‘Say: “O Allâh, indeed You are Pardoning and You love pardon, so pardon me (Allāhumma innaka ‘Afuwwun, tuḥibbul-‘ afwa fa’fu ‘annī).’” (Sahîh Al-Jâmi’ 4423. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ قَالَتْ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا دَخَلَ الْعَشْرُ شَدَّ مِئْزَرَهُ، وَأَحْيَا لَيْلَهُ، وَأَيْقَظَ أَهْلَهُ
Narrated by ‘Âishah: With the start of the last ten days of Ramadân, the Prophet (ﷺ) used to tighten his waist belt/garment and used to pray all the night, and used to keep his family awake for the prayers. (Sahîh Bukhârî 2024)
Exerting oneself in worship
الأَسْوَدَ بْنَ يَزِيدَ، يَقُولُ قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ رضى الله عنها كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَجْتَهِدُ فِي الْعَشْرِ الأَوَاخِرِ مَا لاَ يَجْتَهِدُ فِي غَيْرِهِ
‘Âishah (Allâh be pleased with her) reported that Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) used to exert himself in worship during the last ten nights to a greater extent than at any other time. (Sahîh Muslim 1175)
Sahûr refers to the food or drink that is consumed by a person at the end of the night. It is called sahûr because it is consumed at the time of sahar which is the end of the night. (Lisân al-‘Arab 4/351)
The Sahûr is that which is eaten and drank within As-Sahar, which is the last part of the night. Suhûr – with a Dhammah upon the Sîn – is the act of eating As-Sahûr. (Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn, Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 3)
The ruling of Suhûr
The scholars are in agreement that is it recommended to eat suhûr. (Imâm Muhammad Al-Mundhir, Al-Ijmâ’ 124)
The majority of the scholars hold that eating Suhûr is a recommendation. (Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn, Sharh Umdatul-Ahkâm 3)
The virtues of Sahûr
1) A blessing within Sahûr
عَنْ أَنَسٍ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم “ تَسَحَّرُوا فَإِنَّ فِي السُّحُورِ بَرَكَةً ”
Anas (Allâh be pleased with him) reported Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: Take Sahûr, for within Sahûr there is a blessing. (Sahîh Muslim 1095)
2) The blessed morning meal
عَنِ الْعِرْبَاضِ بْنِ سَارِيَةَ، قَالَ دَعَانِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلَى السَّحُورِ فِي رَمَضَانَ فَقَالَ “ هَلُمَّ إِلَى الْغَدَاءِ الْمُبَارَكِ ”
Narrated by Al-Irbâd ibn Sâriyyah: The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) invited me to a meal shortly before dawn in Ramadân saying: Come to the blessed morning meal. (Abû Dawûd 2344. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
3) The command (of recommendation) by the prophet
عَنِ الْمِقْدَامِ بْنِ مَعْدِيكَرِبَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ “ عَلَيْكُمْ بِغَدَاءِ السُّحُورِ فَإِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَدَاءُ الْمُبَارَكُ ”
Narrated from Al-Miqdâm ibn Ma’dikarib that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:”You should take Sahûr for it is the blessed breakfast.” (An-Nasâ’i 2166. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
4) It differs from the People of the Book
عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم “ إِنَّ فَصْلَ مَا بَيْنَ صِيَامِنَا وَصِيَامِ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أَكْلَةُ السَّحَرِ ”
Narrated by ‘Amr ibn al-‘Âs:The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) as saying: The difference between our fasting and that of the people of the Book is eating Suhûr. (Abû Dawûd 2343. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
5) Do not abandon it even if you only take a sip of water
Abû Sa’îd al-Khudrî reported: The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said, “The Suhûr is a blessed meal, so do not abandon it even if you take only a sip of water. Verily, Allâh and his angels send blessings upon those who take the Suhûr” (Musnad Imâm Ahmad 11101. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî & Sahîh by Shu’ayb Al-Arnaût)
What to eat for Sahûr
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ “ نِعْمَ سَحُورُ الْمُؤْمِنِ التَّمْرُ ”
Narrated by Abû Hurairah:The Prophet (ﷺ) as saying: The best Sahûr for the believer is dates. (Abû Dawûd 2345. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
And eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall (Sûrah Al-Baqarah 2:187)
Ibn Kathîr said: Allâh has allowed eating and drinking, along with having sexual intercourse, as we have stated, during any part of the night until the light of dawn is distinguished from the darkness of the night. Allâh has described that time as ‘distinguishing the white thread from the black thread.’ (Tafsir Ibn Kathîr 2:187)
عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّ بِلاَلاً، كَانَ يُؤَذِّنُ بِلَيْلٍ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم “ كُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يُؤَذِّنَ ابْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ، فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يُؤَذِّنُ حَتَّى يَطْلُعَ الْفَجْرُ ”
Narrated by ‘Âishah: Bilâl used to pronounce the Adhân at night, so Allâhs Messenger (ﷺ)? said, “Carry on taking your meals (eat and drink) till Ibn Um Maktûm pronounces the Adhân, for he does not pronounce it till it is Fajr (dawn). (Sahîh Bukhârî 1918)
Q1: What is meant by Al-Fajr-ul-Kâdhib (false dawn) and Al-Fajr-ul-Sâdiq (true dawn)? According to which one of them do we offer Salâh (Prayer)? How can we calculate the time of Al-Fajr-ul-Sâdiq?
A: Al-Fajr-ul-Kâdhib appears as a rectangle in the sky from the top to the bottom of the horizon, while Al-Fajr-ul-Sâdiq appears in the sky spreading along the horizon. The time for offering the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer starts with the appearance of Al-Fajr-ul-Sâdiq.
The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ : Member – Deputy Chairman – Chairman Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan – Abdul-Razzaq Afify – Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz (Alifta.gov.sa)
The interval between Sahûr and the Fajr prayer
عَنْ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ تَسَحَّرْنَا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ قَامَ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ. قُلْتُ كَمْ كَانَ بَيْنَ الأَذَانِ وَالسَّحُورِ قَالَ قَدْرُ خَمْسِينَ آيَةً
Anas narrated: Zaid bin Thâbit said, “We took the Sahûr with the Prophet (ﷺ) . Then he stood for the prayer.” I asked, “What was the interval between the Sahûr and the Adhân?” He replied, “The interval was sufficient to recite fifty verses of the Qur’ân.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 1921)
Zirr bin Hubaish said:”I had Sahûr with Hudhaifah, then we went out to pray. When we came to the Masjid we prayed two Rakahs, then the Iqâmah for prayer was said, and there was only a short time between them.” (An Nasâ’i 2153. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
عَنْ أَبِي عَطِيَّةَ، قَالَ قُلْتُ لِعَائِشَةَ فِينَا رَجُلاَنِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَحَدُهُمَا يُعَجِّلُ الإِفْطَارَ وَيُؤَخِّرُ السُّحُورَ وَالآخَرُ يُؤَخِّرُ الإِفْطَارَ وَيُعَجِّلُ السُّحُورَ . قَالَتْ أَيُّهُمَا الَّذِي يُعَجِّلُ الإِفْطَارَ وَيُؤَخِّرُ السُّحُورَ قُلْتُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْعُودٍ . قَالَتْ هَكَذَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَصْنَعُ
Abû ‘Atiyyah narrated: “I said to ‘Âishah: ‘Among us there are two of the Companions of the Prophet, one of whom hastens Iftâr and delays Sahûr, and the other delays Iftâr and hastens Sahûr.’ She said: ‘Which of them is the one who hastens Iftâr and delays Sahûr?’ I said: “Abdullâh ibn Masûd.’ She said: ‘That is what the Messenger of Allâh used to do.”‘ (An-Nasâ’i 2158. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
Verily, the Muslims: men and women, the believers: men and women, the Qanit (obedient): men and the women, the men and women who are truthful, the men and the women who are patient, the Khashi (humble): men and the women, the men and the women who give Sadaqat (zakah etc..), the men and the women who fast, the men and the women who guard their chastity and the men and the women who remember Allâh much with their hearts and tongues, Allâh has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward. (Sûrah Ahzâb 33:35)
Ibn Kathîr said:… Here Allâh tells us that for all of those mentioned in this Ayah, He has prepared for them forgiveness of their sins and a great reward, meaning, Paradise. (Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr 33:35)
2) Forgiveness for all the previous [minor] sins
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم “ مَنْ صَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ ”
Abû Hurairah narrated : Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever observes fasts during the month of Ramadân out of sincere faith, and hoping to attain Allâh’s reward, then all his past sins will be forgiven.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 38)
3) Ar-Rayyân – a gate in Paradise
عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم “ إِنَّ فِي الْجَنَّةِ بَابًا يُقَالُ لَهُ الرَّيَّانُ يَدْخُلُ مِنْهُ الصَّائِمُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لاَ يَدْخُلُ مَعَهُمْ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُمْ يُقَالُ أَيْنَ الصَّائِمُونَ فَيَدْخُلُونَ مِنْهُ فَإِذَا دَخَلَ آخِرُهُمْ أُغْلِقَ فَلَمْ يَدْخُلْ مِنْهُ أَحَدٌ
Sahl ibn Sa’d (Allâh be pleased with him) reported Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: In Paradise there is a gate which is called Rayyân through which only the people who fast would enter on the Day on Resurrection. None else would enter along with them. It would be proclaimed: Where are the people who fast that they should be admitted into it? And when the last of them would enter, it would be closed and no one would enter it. (Sahîh Muslim 1152)
4) The gates of Paradise are opened
مَوْلَى التَّيْمِيِّينَ أَنَّ أَبَاهُ، حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّهُ، سَمِعَ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم “ إِذَا دَخَلَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ فُتِّحَتْ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ، وَغُلِّقَتْ أَبْوَابُ جَهَنَّمَ، وَسُلْسِلَتِ الشَّيَاطِينُ
Narrated by Abû Hurairah : Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “When the month of Ramadân starts, the gates of the heavens are opened and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are fettered.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 1899)
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، – رضى الله عنه – أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ “ إِذَا جَاءَ رَمَضَانُ فُتِّحَتْ أَبْوَابُ الْجَنَّةِ وَغُلِّقَتْ أَبْوَابُ النَّارِ وَصُفِّدَتِ الشَّيَاطِينُ ”
Abû Hurairah reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:When there comes the month of Ramadân, the gates of Paradise are opened, and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are fettered. (Sahîh Muslim 1079)
5) Removal from the Hellfire by a great distance
حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ عُقْبَةَ بْنِ عَامِرٍ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ “ مَنْ صَامَ يَوْمًا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بَاعَدَ اللَّهُ مِنْهُ جَهَنَّمَ مَسِيرَةَ مِائَةِ عَامٍ ”
It was narrated by Uqbah bin ‘Âmir that the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said:”Whoever fasts one day in the cause of Allâh, The Mighty and Sublime, Allâh will separate him the distance of one hundred years from the fire.” (Sunan An-Nasâ’i 2256. Declared Hasan by Al-Albânî)
عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ “ مَنْ صَامَ يَوْمًا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بَاعَدَ اللَّهُ وَجْهَهُ عَنِ النَّارِ سَبْعِينَ خَرِيفًا ”
Abû Sa’îd al-Khudrî (Allâh be pleased with him) reported Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:He who observes fast for a day in the way of Allâh, He will remove his face from Hell to the extent of seventy autumns distance. (Sahîh Muslim 1153)
6) A shield against the Fire
فَقَالَ عُثْمَانُ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ يَقُولُ: “ الصِّيَامُ جُنَّةٌ مِنَ النَّارِ كَجُنَّةِ أَحَدِكُمْ مِنَ الْقِتَالِ
‘Uthmân said: “I heard the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) say: ‘Fasting is a shield against the Fire just like the shield of anyone of you while fighting.’” (Sunan Ibn Mâjah 1639. Declared Sahîh upon the conditions of Muslim & Bukhârî by Shu’ayb Al-Arnaût)
7) A trench between oneself & the Hellfire
عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ الْبَاهِلِيِّ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ “ مَنْ صَامَ يَوْمًا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ النَّارِ خَنْدَقًا كَمَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ ”
Narrated by Abû Umâmah Al-Bâhili: That the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Whoever fasts a day in the cause of Allâh, Allâh shall put between him and the Fire a trench whose distance is like that between the heavens and the earth.” (At-Tirmidhî 1624. Declared Hasan Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
8)The smell of the mouth of the fasting person is better than musk
شِهَابٍ أَخْبَرَنِي سَعِيدُ بْنُ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ “… فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ لَخِلْفَةُ فَمِ الصَّائِمِ أَطْيَبُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مِنْ رِيحِ الْمِسْكِ ”
Abû Hurairah reported Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: By (Allâh) in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad, the breath of the observer of fast is better to Allâh than the fragrance of musk. (Sahîh Muslim 1151)
9) The reward of fasting is for Allâh & He will reward for it
أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ “ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كُلُّ عَمَلِ ابْنِ آدَمَ لَهُ إِلاَّ الصِّيَامَ هُوَ لِي وَأَنَا أَجْزِي بِهِ
Abû Hurairah reported Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:Allâh, The-Mighty & The-Majestic said: Every act of the son of Âdam is for him except fasting. It is for Me, and I will give a reward for it…(Sahîh Muslim 1151)
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم “ كُلُّ عَمَلِ ابْنِ آدَمَ يُضَاعَفُ الْحَسَنَةُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا إِلَى سَبْعِمِائَةِ ضِعْفٍ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلاَّ الصَّوْمَ فَإِنَّهُ لِي وَأَنَا أَجْزِي بِهِ
Abû Hurairah (Allâh be pleased with him) reported Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:Every (good) deed of the son of Âdam would be multiplied by tenfold to seven hundredfold reward. Allâh, The Exalted and Majestic, has said: With the exception of fasting, for it is done for Me and I will give a reward for it… (Sahîh Muslim 1151)
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:
Allâh has attributed the reward the reward of fasting to Himself, that is because good deeds are multiplied by numbers, one good deed is multiplied by ten to seven hundred and more, but as for fasting, Allâh has attributed its reward to Himself without the consideration of a number. Allâh, The Most-High, is The Most-Generous, The Most-Bounteous and of course the greatness of gifts is based on the greatness of the giver. Therefore the reward of fasting will be very great without a limit. (Majâlis Sharh Ramadân, 2)
There are two occasions of joy for one who fasts, joy when he breaks it, and joy when he meets his Lord (Sahîh Muslim 1151)
11) The Fast will intercede for one on The Day of Judgement
The prophet (ﷺ) said:
الصِّيامُ و القرآنُ يَشْفَعَانِ للعبدِ يومَ القيامةِ ، يقولُ : الصِّيامُ : أَيْ رَبِّ مَنَعْتُهُ الطَّعَامَ و الشهوةَ ، فشفعْني فيهِ ، و يقولُ القرآنُ : مَنَعْتُهُ النَّوْمَ بِالليلِ ، فَشَفِّعْنِي فيهِ ، قال : فيشفعانِ
Fasting & the Qur’ân will intercede for the servant on the day of Judgement, saying (the Fast) :’Oh Lord, I have prevented him from food and desire, so make me an intercessor for him’. And the Qur’ân will say: ‘I have prevented him from sleeping at night so make me an intercessor for him’. Then Allâh will grant them intercession. (Sahîh At-Targhîb 984. Declared Hasan Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
12)There is nothing like or equal to Sawm (fast)
عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ، قَالَ أَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ مُرْنِي بِأَمْرٍ آخُذُهُ عَنْكَ . قَالَ “ عَلَيْكَ بِالصَّوْمِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ مِثْلَ لَهُ ”
Abû Umâmah said: ‘I came to the Messenger of Allâh and said: Tell me of something that I may take (learn) from you. He said: “Take to fasting, for there is nothing like it.”‘ ‘ (An-Nasâ’i 2220. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
Raja ibn Haiwah said:”Abû Umâmah Al-Bâhili narrated to me: ‘I said: O Messenger of Allâh, tell me of something by which Allâh will benefit me. He said: Take to fasting, for there is nothing like it.”‘ (An-Nasâ’i 2221. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَىُّ الْعَمَلِ أَفْضَلُ قَالَ “ عَلَيْكَ بِالصَّوْمِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ عِدْلَ لَهُ ”
It was narrated from Abû Umâmah that he asked the Messenger of Allâh:”Which deed is best?” he said: “Take to fasting, for there is nothing equal to it.”(An-Nasâ’i 2222. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
13) The supplication of the fasting person is answered
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم “ ثَلاَثَةٌ لاَ تُرَدُّ دَعْوَتُهُمُ الصَّائِمُ حَتَّى يُفْطِرَ وَالإِمَامُ الْعَادِلُ وَدَعْوَةُ الْمَظْلُومِ يَرْفَعُهَا اللَّهُ فَوْقَ الْغَمَامِ وَيَفْتَحُ لَهَا أَبْوَابَ السَّمَاءِ وَيَقُولُ الرَّبُّ وَعِزَّتِي لأَنْصُرَنَّكَ وَلَوْ بَعْدَ حِينٍ ”
Abû Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allâh صلى الله عليه وسلم said:”There are three whose supplication is not rejected: The fasting person until he breaks his fast, the just ruler, and the supplication of the oppressed person; Allâh raises it up above the clouds and opens the gates of heaven to it. And the Lord says: ‘By My might, I shall surely aid you, even if it should be after a while.’” (At-Tirmidhî 3598, Ibn Mâjah, Musnad of Imâm Ahmad. Declared Hasan by Ibn Hajr in Mishkât)
14) People are freed from the Fire every night
عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ “ إِنَّ لِلَّهِ عِنْدَ كُلِّ فِطْرٍ عُتَقَاءَ وَذَلِكَ فِي كُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ ”
Jâbir narrated that the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said:“At every breaking of the fast Allâh has people whom He frees (from the Fire), and that happens every night.” (Ibn Mâjah 1643. Declared Hasan Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ قَالَ: “ إِذَا كَانَتْ أَوَّلُ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ صُفِّدَتِ الشَّيَاطِينُ وَمَرَدَةُ الْجِنِّ وَغُلِّقَتْ أَبْوَابُ النَّارِ فَلَمْ يُفْتَحْ مِنْهَا بَابٌ. وَفُتِحَتْ أَبْوَابُ الْجَنَّةِ فَلَمْ يُغْلَقْ مِنْهَا بَابٌ. وَنَادَى مُنَادٍ: يَا بَاغِيَ الْخَيْرِ أَقْبِلْ. وَيَا بَاغِيَ الشَّرِّ أَقْصِرْ. وَلِلَّهِ عُتَقَاءُ مِنَ النَّارِ. وَذَلِكَ فِي كُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ
Abû Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said:“When the first night of Ramadân comes, the devils & mischievous jinns are chained up, and the gates of the Fire are closed, and none of its gates are opened. The gates of Paradise are opened and none of its gates are closed. And a caller cries out: ‘O seeker of good, proceed, O seeker of evil, stop.’ And Allâh has necks (people) whom He frees (from the Fire), and that happens every night.” (Ibn Mâjah 1642. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
Thawbân reported: The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said, “Fasting the month of Ramadân is like ten months of fasting and fasting six days of Shawwal is like two months of fasting. Thus, they are like fasting for a year.” (Sahîh At-Targhîb 1007. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
The Pen has been lifted from three: from the child until he reaches puberty, from the sleeper until he wakes up and from the insane until he regains his sanity.” (Musnad Imam Ahmad 940. Declared Sahîh by Ahmad Shâkir)
However it is recommended for his guardian to command him to fast in order to train him upon the obedience to his Lord before he reaches puberty, in attempt to follow the examples of the Salaf-us-Sâlih (pious predecessors). The prophets companions used to make their children fast; they would bring them to the Mosque along with some toys that were made of wool. When the children complained about being hungry and started to cry they would give them the toys in order to keep them busy [Sahîh Muslim 1136].
A boy becomes pubescent with one of these three signs:
The first: having a wet dream. The proof is Allâhs statement:
And when the children among you reaches the wet dream (comes to puberty), then let them (also) ask for permission, as those senior to them (in age). Thus Allâh makes clear His Âyât (Commandments and legal obligations) for you. And Allâh is All-Knowing, All-Wise. (Sûrah An-Nûr 24:59)
The second sign: growing pubic hair. This is based on the statement of ‘Âtiyyah Al-Qurathî that he reported:
I was among the captives of Banû Quraydhah. They (the Companions) examined us, and those who had begun to grow pubic hair were killed, and those who had not were not killed. I was among those who had not grown hair. (Abû Dawûd 4404. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
The third sign: reaching the age of fifteen.
أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عُرِضَهُ يَوْمَ أُحُدٍ وَهُوَ ابْنُ أَرْبَعَ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً فَلَمْ يُجِزْهُ وَعُرِضَهُ يَوْمَ الْخَنْدَقِ وَهُوَ ابْنُ خَمْسَ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً فَأَجَازَهُ
Ibn ‘Umar said: I was presented before the prophet (ﷺ) on the day of Uhud when I was fourteen years old, but he did not allow me (to participate in the battle). I was again presented before him on the day of Khandaq when I was fifteen years old, Then he allowed me. (Abû Dawûd 4406. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
Nâfi’ said: When I mentioned this tradition to ‘Umar ibn Abd al-Azîz he said : That is the dividing line between the age of minor and the major [i.e 15 years]. (Abû Dawûd 4407. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî)
For a female the same signs of puberty are applied with the addition of the monthly period. Therefore whenever a woman sees blood, she has reached puberty. Her pen of accountability will start running even if it is before the age of ten.
2) The insane person (one who has lost his mind)
Fasting is not obligatory upon him due to the aforementioned hadith ” the pen has been lifted from three…” from among the three is the insane person, until he comes back to his senses.
His fasting is invalid because he does not have an intellect to comprehend his worship or intend it. And worship is not accepted except with an intention – the proof is the prophets statement صلى الله عليه وسلم :
Actions are considered based on their intentions, and a person will only get rewarded based on what he intends… (Sahîh Bukhârî 1)
3) The one who has reached the age of senility or mental infirmity
For these individuals neither fasting nor feeding is obligatory upon them, as they do not have the ability to distinguish between things. Thus resembling a child who has not reached the age of discernment.
4) The one who is in a state of perpetual disability [chronically ill], old person etc.. and are not able to fast
For example, a fragile old man or woman or one suffering from a terminal sickness such as cancer. For these individuals fasting is not obligatory upon them because they do not have the ability to fast.
Additionally, those who have to perform difficult jobs under harsh conditions (i.e coal miners) and who could not find any other way to support themselves, and as such cannot endure the additional burden of fasting. All of these people are allowed to break their fast, because such a practise would place too much hardship on them during any part of the year.
لَا يُكَلِّفُ ٱللَّهُ نَفۡسًا إِلَّا وُسۡعَهَاۚ
Allâh does not burden a soul beyond what it can bear. (Sûrah Al-Baqarah 2:286)
However, it is a must for them to replace the daily fast with feeding a poor person everyday. You are given the choice of either giving each poor person a mudd [type of volumetric measurement] of food (i.e raw grains) which is one-fourth of prophetic sâ’ or you can cook the food and invite poor people according to the number of days that you have not fasted.
‘Atâ narrated : That he heard Ibn ‘Abbâs reciting the Divine Verse:– “And for those who can fast with difficulty they have a choice either to fast, or feed a poor person for every day..” (2.184) Ibn ‘Abbâs said, “This Verse is not abrogated, it is meant for the old men and old women who are unable to fast, so they should feed one poor person for each day of fasting (instead of fasting). (Sahîh Bukhârî 4505)
5) The sick person whose sickness is hoped to be cured
For this individual there are 3 states:
The 1st state: if he is able to fast without any difficulties or harm then in this case it is obligatory upon him to fast. That is because he does not have a valid excuse which allows him to break his fast.
The 2nd state: if he is able to fast but with some difficulties, without the fear of harming himself by fasting, then he should break the fast. This is based on Allâhs statement:
We passed through this (period of menstruation), and we were ordered to complete the fasts, but were not ordered to complete the prayers. (Sahîh Muslim 335)
7) A nursing mother or a pregnant woman
The nursing mother or the pregnant woman who fears harm for herself or her baby due to fasting, then it is permissible to break the fast and pay the “ransom”. They do not have to make up the missed days.
Abdulláh ibn Abbâs said: Explaining the verse; “And for those who can fast with difficulty they have a choice either to fast, or feed a poor person for every day..” he said: This was a concession granted to the aged man and woman who were able to keep fast (but with difficulty); they were allowed to leave the fast and instead feed an poor person for each fast; (and a concession) to pregnant and suckling woman when they feared harm (to themselves or the baby) .
Abû Dawûd said: Meaning: “Fear for their children, then the two of them do not fast, and they feed. (Abû Dawûd 2318. Declared Sahîh by Shu’ayb Arnaût)
روي مالك في الموطأ أن عبد الله بن عمر سئل عن المرآة الحامل إذا خافت على ولدها و اشتد عليها الصيام فقال تفطر و تطعم مكان كل يوم مسكينا مدا من حنطة بمد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
Mâlik narrated that he had heard that ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Umar was asked about what a pregnant woman should do if the fast became difficult for her and she feared for her child, and he said, “She should break the fast and feed a poor man one mudd of wheat in place of every day, using the mudd of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (Muwatta of Imâm Mâlik 683/596)
The above has been taken from Majâlis Sharh Ramadân, Sharh Umdah al-Hakam of Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn & Fiqh As-Sunnah of Sayyid Sâbiq.
As-Siyâm in the language means ‘to refrain from a thing’. In the Shari’ah (Islamic Legislation) it means ‘to refrain from food, drink and the rest of the nullifiers, from the appearance of the second Fajr till the setting of the sun, in worship of Allâh, The Mighty & Majestic’. (Sharh Umdat-ul Ahkâm, ch. The Book of Fasting)
As-Sayyid Sâbiq said:
[Explaining the linguistic meaning of Sawm].. For example, a verse in the Qur’ân says: “.. Verily, I have vowed a fast (Sawma) to Ar-Ramân (The Most-Merciful) so I shall not speak to any human being this day.” Sûrah Maryam 19:26) – [Maryam vowed to abstain] that is from speaking. (Fiqh As-Sunnah, ch. As-Siyâm)
The meaning of Ramadân
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:
Ramadân is the month between Sha’bân and Shawwâl. It is called (Ramadân) due to the severity of the heat therein when it was named. (Sharh Umdat-ul Ahkâm hadith 174)
The Kinds of Obligatory Fasts
Ibn Rushd said:
Obligatory fasting is of three kinds:
1)Obligatory fasting during a fixed time, and this is fasting during the month of Ramadân itself.
2) The second is prescribed due to a reason, and this is fasting for expiation (kaffâra).
3) Fasting that a person imposes on himself, this is fasting after a vow (nadhr). (Bidâyat al-Mujtahid 330)
The obligation to fast in Ramadân
Ibn Rushd said:
Fasting during the month of Ramadân is obligatory on the basis of the Qur’ân, the Sunnah, and the Ijma’ (Scholarly Consensus).
O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious). (Sûrah Al-Baqarah 2:183)
In the Sunnah it is the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم :
قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم “ بُنِيَ الإِسْلاَمُ عَلَى خَمْسٍ شَهَادَةِ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلاَةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ وَحَجِّ الْبَيْتِ وَصَوْمِ رَمَضَانَ ”
Abdullâh son of ‘Umar said that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: The pillars of al-Islâm are five (pillars), testifying (the fact) that there is no one worthy of worship except Allâh, that Muhammad is His servant and messenger, and the establishment of prayer, payment of Zakâh, performing Pilgrimage to the House (Ka’bâ) and the fast of Ramadân. (Sahîh Muslim 16)
Consensus is found as there is no disagreement that has been attributed to any of the Imâms over this. (Bidâyat al-Mujtahid 331)
As-Sayyid Sâbiq said:
The whole Muslim nation agrees upon the obligation of fasting Ramadân, and that it is one of the pillars of Islâm which are known necessarily from the religion. The one who denies this is a disbeliever, an apostate from Islâm. (Fiqh As-Sunnah 2/109)
When this obligation was made
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:
Fasting was made obligatory upon this nation in the second year after the Hijrah. (Sharh Umdat-ul Ahkâm, ch. The Book of Fasting).
On whom fasting Ramadân is obligatory upon
As-Sayyid Sâbiq said :
The scholars agree that fasting is obligatory upon the  Muslim, who is of sound mind,  adult,  healthy, and is a  resident.
(Additionally] for the woman, she must not be  menstruating or having post-natal bleeding. (Fiqh As-Sunnah 2/114)
It is not for the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh), to maintain the Mosques of Allâh (i.e. to pray and worship Allâh therein, to look after their cleanliness and their building, etc.), while they witness against their ownselves of disbelief. The works of such are in vain and in Fire shall they abide. (Sûrah At-Tawbah 9:17)
It was narrated from ‘Alî (رضي الله عنه):I heard the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) say: `The Pen has been lifted from three: from the child until he reaches puberty, from the sleeper until he wakes up and from the insane until he regains his sanity.” (Musnad Imam Ahmad 940. Declared Sahîh by Ahmad Shâkir)
The prophet said:… Isn’t it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?” The women replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her religion.” (Sahîh Bukhârî 304)
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:
The laws of Nifâs (post-natal bleeding) are the same as the laws governing menses [i.e not being able to pray or fast etc…]. (Natural Blood of Women pg.35)
From the wisdoms of fasting
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Uthaymîn said:
Allâh has obligated it upon all nations because it is a magnificent act of worship in which the truthfulness of the servants love for his Lord is displayed. As is his honoring of Him and the desire for His Pleasure, by way of that which he endures from patience upon the pains of hunger and thirst, and the curbing of the lustful urges giving precedence to that which Allâh loves and is pleased with over that which it contains from training the soul to have patience and firm strength upon the obedience of Allâh; reminding the servant of that which Allâh has blessed him from food, drink, and other than it from that which the soul desires.
Moreover, he is reminded about the state of his indigent or deprived brothers who do not have the blessing of food, drink, and the like from the desires of the soul, either perpetually or sometimes. Thus, he sympathises with them and has compassion for them. Besides this there are other benefits of fasting which are geberal and specific. (Sharh Umdat-ul Ahkâm, ch. The Book of Fasting)
The medical, spiritual and physical benefits of fasting
Fasting brings a wholesome physiological rest for the digestive tract and central nervous system, and normalises metabolism. (Allan Cott, Fasting As A Way Of Life)
1) As compared to other diet plans, Fasting during Ramadân contains no malnutrition or inadequate calorie intake since there is no restriction on the type or amount of food intake during iftâr or suhûr.
2) Fasting in Ramadân is voluntarily undertaken. It is not a prescribed imposition from a physician. In the hypothalamus part of the brain there is a centre called ‘lipostat’ which controls body mass. When sever and rapid weight loss is achieved by a starvation diet, the centre does not recognise this as normal and, therefore re-programs itself to cause weight gain rapidly once the person goes off the starvation diet. So the only effective way of losing weight is slow, self-controlled, and gradual weight loss by modifying our behaviour, and the attitude about eating while eliminating excess food. Ramadân is a month of self-regulation and self-training in terms of food intake thereby causing hopefully a permanent change in lipostat reading.
3) Ramadân fasting is actually an exercise in self-discipline. For those who are chain smokers, nibble food constantly, or drink coffee every hour; it is a good way to break the habit, hoping that the effect will continue after the month is over.
4) Psychological effect of Ramadân fasting are also well observed by the description of people who fast. They describe a feeling of inner peace and tranquility. The prophet advised them : “if one slanders you or wants to fight you, tell him I am fasting”. Thus, personal hostility during the month is minimal.
6) Dr. Shahid Athar said: Within the first few days of Ramadân, I begin to feel better even before losing a single pound. I work more and pray more; physical stamina and mental alertness improve. I check my blood, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride before the commencement of Ramadân and at its end. I note marked improvement at the end.
7) Dr. Hammudah Abd Al-Ati said: Ramadân is a test and training lesson for our conscious mind and our willpower, our self-respect and moral dignity. Ramadân fasting improves economic skills, teaching us adaptability, patience and forbearance.
8) By emptying the stomach, we relax the whole body, which of course helps to clear the mind and invigorates the soul. Abstaining from eating when one is hungry is not easy, but practising it frees the mind and aids in developing concentration and wisdom, by providing time to focus on spiritual matters.
9) Fasting gives the digestive system a rest and makes the body feel lighter. The energy usually consumed in digestion and good metabolism will be directed towards body detoxification, tissue repair and system healing.
Fasting gives a chance for the stomach and intestines to regenerate their mucous cell lining, as digestive secretions are reduced during the day. Fasting boosts the detoxification powers of the hepatic liver cells, cleans the kidneys and colon, and purifies the blood. It also helps overcome obesity, aids in ridding the body of any excess water, and clears the blood from extra fats, which in turn frees the tissues from stored fat-soluble toxins such as pesticides or drug metabolites.
10) Leon Chaitow recommended fasting in his book Natural Alternatives to Antibiotics as an effective way to supercharge the immune system. He states that fasting boosts the activity of the essential parts of the body’s natural defence mechanisms. During fasting the ability of the lymphocytes and other blood cells to encounter any bacterial attack is greatly improved, and since the level of free radicals in the body is reduced by reducing food intake, the activity of antioxidants is retained for better cell protection.
11) Dr. Hamed Muhammad said explaining the natural changes which occur in the body to accommodate the daily fasting in Ramadân : These changes include reduction in the activity of the thyroxin hormone, thus the energy needed by the fasting Muslim to perform his or her daily functions is reduced, making him or her less susceptible to fatigue. Additionally, the blood sugar levels has been found to remain constant during the fasting hours and insulin secretion is kept under control, which is crucial to keeping the brain supplied with glucose for mental concentration and optimal brain performance.
12) Sami Mosuli said whilst explaining the role of autosuggestion in reducing the fasting Muslim from thirst and hunger: This autosuggestion can be even more powerful than the neurotransmitter messages sent by the hypothalamus in the brain to the stomach for it to feel hunger and start asking for food. Instead, the body refers to its stored glycogen and fat deposits for energy supply.
(Abridged & Paraphrased from Fast According To The Qur’ân & Sunnah, Professor Muhammad Zulfiqar. Pg 242-249)
13) Studies reported that total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and blood glucose have been improved after Ramadân compared to before Ramadân.
[Mirzaei B, Rahmani-Nia F, Moghadam MG, Ziyaolhagh SJ, Rezaei A. The effect of ramadan fasting on biochemical and performance parameters in collegiate wrestlers. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2012;15:1215–20.]
14) As smoking is forbidden in Islâm & during fasting of Ramadân, studies revealed a significant reduction in second-hand smoke levels in public places.
[Ramahi I, Seidenberg AB, Kennedy RD, Rees VW. Secondhand smoke emission levels in enclosed public places during Ramadan. Eur J Public Health. 2013;23:789–91.]