The Virtues of Fasting The Day of ‘Âshûra [10th of Muharram]

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

  • Why the Prophet fasted on The Day of ‘Âshûra & the initial obligation to fast


عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، – رضى الله عنهما – أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ فَوَجَدَ الْيَهُودَ صِيَامًا يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ مَا هَذَا الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي تَصُومُونَهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالُوا هَذَا يَوْمٌ عَظِيمٌ أَنْجَى اللَّهُ فِيهِ مُوسَى وَقَوْمَهُ وَغَرَّقَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَقَوْمَهُ فَصَامَهُ مُوسَى شُكْرًا فَنَحْنُ نَصُومُهُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ فَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ وَأَوْلَى بِمُوسَى مِنْكُمْ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَصَامَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ

Ibn ‘Abbâs reported that: The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) arrived in Medînah and found the Jews observing fast on the day of ‘Âshûra. The Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said to them:What is the (significance) of this day that you observe fast on it? They said: It is the day of great (significance) when Allâh delivered Moses and his people, and drowned the Pharaoh and his people, and Moses observed fast out of gratitude and we also observe it. Upon this the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said: We have more right, and we have a closer connection with Moses than you have; so Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) observed fast (on the day of ‘Âshûra), and gave orders that it should be observed.

Sahîh Muslim 1130


  • Why the obligation to fast The Day of ‘Âshûra was abrogated

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّ قُرَيْشًا، كَانَتْ تَصُومُ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ، ثُمَّ أَمَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِصِيَامِهِ حَتَّى فُرِضَ رَمَضَانُ وَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ مَنْ شَاءَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ، وَمَنْ شَاءَ أَفْطَرَ ‏”‏‏.

Narrated by ‘Âishah: (The tribe of) Quraish used to fast on the day of ‘Âshûra in the Pre-Islamic period, and then Allâh’s Messenger ordered (Muslims) to fast on it till the fasting in the month of Ramadân was prescribed; whereupon the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “He who wants to fast (on ‘Âshûra) may fast, and he who does not want to fast may not fast.”

Sahîh Bukhârî 1893


  • The reward for fasting The Day of ‘Âshûra

عَنْ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ الأَنْصَارِيِّ…قَالَ وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ يُكَفِّرُ السَّنَةَ الْمَاضِيَةَ ‏”‏

From Abû Qatâdah Al-Ansârî…: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was asked about fasting on the day of ‘Âshûra (10th of Muharram), whereupon he said: “It expiates the sins of the preceding year.”

Sahîh Muslim 1162


  • The keenness of the Prophet for fasting The Day of ‘Âshûra & its excellence

عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي يَزِيدَ، سَمِعَ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، – رضى الله عنهما – وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صِيَامِ، يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ مَا عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَامَ يَوْمًا يَطْلُبُ فَضْلَهُ عَلَى الأَيَّامِ إِلاَّ هَذَا الْيَوْمَ وَلاَ شَهْرًا إِلاَّ هَذَا الشَّهْرَ يَعْنِي رَمَضَانَ

Ibn ‘Abbâs was asked about observing of fast on the day of ‘Âshûra whereupon he said: I do not know Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) singling out any day’s fast and considering it more excellent than another, except this day (the day of ‘Âshûra) and this month, meaning the month of Ramadan.

Sahîh Muslim 1132

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ مَا رَأَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَتَحَرَّى صِيَامَ يَوْمٍ فَضَّلَهُ عَلَى غَيْرِهِ، إِلاَّ هَذَا الْيَوْمَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ وَهَذَا الشَّهْرَ‏.‏ يَعْنِي شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ

Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbâs: I never saw the Prophet (ﷺ) more keen to fast on a day, and that he favored more than another except this day, the day of ‘Âshûra, and this month, meaning the month of Ramadân.

Sahîh Bukhârî 2006


  • Fasting the day before ‘Âshûra – [9th of Muharram]

حَدَّثَنِي إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ أُمَيَّةَ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا غَطَفَانَ بْنَ طَرِيفٍ الْمُرِّيَّ، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ، بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ – رضى الله عنهما – يَقُولُ حِينَ صَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ قَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ يَوْمٌ تُعَظِّمُهُ الْيَهُودُ وَالنَّصَارَى ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ فَإِذَا كَانَ الْعَامُ الْمُقْبِلُ – إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ – صُمْنَا الْيَوْمَ التَّاسِعَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَلَمْ يَأْتِ الْعَامُ الْمُقْبِلُ حَتَّى تُوُفِّيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that when the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) fasted on the day of ‘Âshûra and commanded that it should he observed as a fast, they (his Companions) said to him: O Messenger of Allâh, it is a day which the Jews and Christians hold in high esteem. Thereupon the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) said: When the next year comes, Allâh willing, we will observe fast on the 9th. But the Messenger of Allâh (ﷺ) died before the advent of the next year.

Sahîh Muslim 1134

 الترمذي وَرُوِيَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ صُومُوا التَّاسِعَ وَالْعَاشِرَ وَخَالِفُوا الْيَهُودَ. وَبِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ يَقُولُ الشَّافِعِيُّ وَأَحْمَدُ وَإِسْحَاقُ

At-Tirmidhî said: It has been reported from Ibn ‘Abbâs that he said: “Fast the 9th and the 10th, and differ from the Jews.” This hadîth has been transmitted by Ash-Shâfi’î, Ahmad, Ishâq.

Jâmi At-Tirmidhî 755. Declared Sahîh by Al-Albânî

Published by أبو زكريا عيسى الألباني

BSc (Hons) Microbiology | Qur'ān | Sunnah |

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